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13 Hsiang-Fu, Yuan. Those Foreign Devils. A Celestial on England and Eng- 
lishmen. Translated by W. H. Wilkinson. 8vo. pp. XXII, 191. London, 
1 891. I J. td. 



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"THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS!" 



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"THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS!" 

A CELESTTAL ON 
ENGLAND AND ENGLISHMEN 



BY 

YUAN HSIANG-FU. 

TRANSLATED BY 

W. H. WILKINSON, 

O/H.M. Consular Service in China; Davis Chinese Scholar, Oxford^ 1879 : 

AUTHOR OP "WHBRB CHINBSBS DBIVE." 

** A chiel amang as takin' notes." 



8JB^ ' ■ " ' 



1891. - :r ^: - ; 

LONDON: 

The Leadenhall Prefs, 50, Leadenhall Street, E.G. 

Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent &* Co., Ltd : 



New York : Charles Scribner's Sons, 743 <5r» 745, Broadway. 

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THK NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

458728 

ASTOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS. 

R . 1909 L 



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PREFACE. 



If Chinese prefaces were intended to be 
taken literally, it would not be easy to say 
who is the real author of these entertaining 
Notes on ourselves and our habits. A 

^ certain stout-hearted magistrate named 
Yuan (Yewan), returning from a tour in 

^ Europe, jotted down in casual fashion 
his impressions of Western society. The 

^n manuscript fell under the notice of an 

? anonymous friend who, to use his own 
words, "borrowed it, intending to copy it" 
Unfortunately, ^s he regretfully admits, 
'* before my copy could be completed, 












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VI PREFACE. 

Yuan asked me to return the original, 
and consequently it is only such portions 
of his notes as I could remember that 
I am now able to send to press." This 
naive confession must arouse in a Western 
reader, accustomed to see a plagiarist, 
even a suspected plagiarist, dealt with 
as the Inquisition of holy and merciful 
memory treated a renegade Jew, feelings 
of amazement not unmixed with horror. 
A friend is allowed to revel among my 
most cherished manuscripts, and having 
happed upon something- which he thinks 
may prove profitable to the world at 
large, borrows the work and takes it home 
to copy. Frustrated in his design by 
circumstances, he perpetrates a still more 
hideous offence: he publishes his fallible 
recollection of my book. Chinese morality, 



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PREFACE. vii 

however, sees nothing reprehensible, or 
even remarkable, in the proceeding, be- 
cause, as a native friend informs us, the 
actual words are not pirated, but merely 
the ideas. Ideas in China are far less 
sacred than words ; they have been, most 
of them, the common property of the 
nation for centuries. Moreover, it is quite 
possible, it is indeed almost certain, that 
Yuan authorized this editing of his notes ; 
lor he is said to be in the Diplomatic 
Service of his Chinese Majesty, and 
may have considered that fewer incon- 
veniences were likely to arise if a book of 
this nature, however inspired by himself, 
were written by somebody else. 

He need not, as ^r as foreigners are 
concerned, have displayed so much modesty. 
It is true that he describes us and our ways 



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Vlll PREFACE, 

much as Sir John Lubbock migkt a Mew 
and not uninteresting variety of aat, with 
an air of pleased discovery ; but his book 
is no« designedly offe^HSfTve. Whatever he 
saw he sets dowfif^ lt>r the most part simply 
and without cdfiiment. He rarely draws 
comparisofi^, and when he does we do not 
necessarily suffer. Take his description 
of odf gaols, for instance. These, he says, 
af6 '* both spacious and clean, such as have 
never been seen in the Middle Kingdom. 
Their only fear is lest a prisoner should be 
uncomfortable or fall ill; consequently, as 
regard!s clothing, food, and surroundings, 
he is far better off than he was at home. If 
they had to deal with the rascals of China, 
these would," he remarks (and the Hong- 
kong Government will bear him out), " in- 
fallibly get into trouble in order to get into 



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PREFACE. IX 

gaol.*' Nor can we complain, on the 
whole, of his accuracy. Sometimes he 
goes venially astray, as when he writes 
that ^'a law has recently been passed 
enabling widowers, as well as widows, to 
marry again;" or that "port wine is 
made of sheep's blood ; " but, as a general 
rule, his facts remain facts when candidly 
examined, however quaint and grotesque 
they may seem at first sight. In face 
of the etiquette of a state drawing-room, 
who could deny that "women, when 
going to Court, regard a bare skin as a 
mark of respect?" Is it not largely true, 
in our sociable country, that at any rate 
at a public dinner, " two guests, strangers 
to one another, finding themselves side 
by side at table, must not engage in con- 
versation, but must confine their atten- 



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X PREFACE. 

tion to eating and drinking " ? And is his 
explanation of the yearly exodus to the 
seaside altogether unfounded or Unfair ? 
— "Wealthy families, as summer comes 
round, fix upon some spot where to 
escape the heat. Yet the weather in 
England is really never oppressively hot, 
and this is merely, a custom, for they 
hold that a family which did not go 
out of town ' to avoid the heat ' . would 
not be looked on as respectable." There 
must be many things in our habits which, 
as. a decorous follower, of Confucius, he 
could not possibly approve ; but his dis- 
approval he leaves to be inferred. . That 
husband arid wife should walk arm-in-arm 
together along the street, or a daughter-in- 
law sit down to table with her husband's 
father, are such obvious violations of the 



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PREFACE, xi 

very first principles of propriety that 
possibly he felt he had done enough in 
the way of condemnation by simply 
mentioning them. On the other hand, 
he does sometimes praise us and our 
belongings — the table utensils, the horses' 
nose-bags, the trams, the ices. But the 
only time, perhaps, when he becomes 
really enthusiastic is when he is de- 
scribing our salads, which, he observes 
with unction, " are exceedingly scrump- 



tious." 



The Notes themselves serve for an 
English reader a double purpose. On 
the face of them^ they are a brief sketch 
of Western civilization as seen through 
Chinese spectacles. In reality they are 
more. By throwing each statement into 
a negative form, they give, as every 



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Xll PREFACE. 

foreigner who has visited China would 
see at once, a very true outline of 
Chinese civilization as well. To take 
for example the first of them: Women 
are not "honoured rather than men," in 
China ; they are considered, in theory,; 
a very inferior kind of animal. Three- 
fourths of the Chinese characters for ad- 
jectives having a bad moral signification 
are compounded of the character for 
''female," a pretty plain proof, some may 
say, that Chinese womankind cannot, like 
our own, "all read and write." Then, far 
from sitting down first at table, the Chinese 
woman has to wait till the males of her 
family have gorged themselves, and then 
dine, as contentedly as she may, off the 
scraps. Hand-shaking betweeo men m 
China is unknown ; acquaintances meeting 

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PREFACE. Xlll 

do not ^* raise the hand to the tip of the 
ear, and wave it/' but fold their own 
hands and shake them. As for a woman 
taking a mans hand, there are scores 
of ancient injunctions to the contrary* 
Chinese propriety is horrified if, in public^ 
a man touches the hand of his own w^^ 
In private there is every 4%ason to 
believe that the Chinese Jua^and is no 
less henpecked than \m brother of the 
West, and wUl .Mdferm ** menial offices 
for his irile'^ >at discretion, if only to 
esca^ie a Hyting. 

4 Slit it would be impossible to show, 
within anything like reasonable. limits, how 
these Notes qan be inverted into a treatise 
on Chinese customs; or in what way very 
accurate ideas pan be gleaned from them 
as to Chinese notions of comfort, decency^ 



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XIV PREFACE, 

and other essentials, or hon-essentials, of 
existence. In most cases the inversion is 
readily made, but it is possible that occa- 
sionally home readers not well acquainted 
with China may fail to see anything note- 
worthy in Yiian's remarks. Take for in- 
stance his admiration of our many-storied 
houses and their staircases. Unless one 
realizes the fact that no Chinese house 
consists of more than a ground floor and 
a single upper story, that most Chinese 
houses have no upper story at all ; and 
that, in any case, the means of going up- 
stairs are such as we should hesitate to 
employ in mounting an ordinary hay-loft, 
the author's wonder is out of place. To 
jump off the Monument, or to lie down 
on the rails when the express for Edin- 
burgh is due, are not the pleasantest 



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PREFACE. XV 

ways perhaps of leaving this world ; but 
that they should strike our stout-hearted 
magistrate as peculiarly appalling, would 
appear rather unreasonable to any one 
who did not know the horror with which 
a Chinaman regards any dismemberment, 
whether before, death or after. YUan 
dwells again and again on the smoothness, 
of our streets, and describes the vehicles 
that ply on them with what may well 
seem superfluous particularity. Yet what 
traveller would cast this up against him 
who had jolted through the sewage of 
Peking in a springless cart or mounted a 
creaking wheelbarrow in native Shanghai } 
Where, for lack of acquaintance with 
Yiian's country and its customs, a reader 
might miss, perhaps, the point of any of 
his comments on English life, a note is 



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xvri tmEiPACE, 

liilriiTiii Tlii fiin litiiin (which, It should 
be observed, first saw the h'ght in that best 
repository of facts about China, the North 
China Herald^ The translation itself 
endeavours to follow its original as closely 
as possible. It tries to show not the ideas 
which ah Englishman familiar with the 
custom, or thing described would at once 
attach to the author s description, but the 
ideas it would arouse in a Chinaman 
ignorant of either. But while a literal 
version has been sought after, foreign terms 
naturalized in Chinese have not been always 
translated literally. Chinese nowadays, 
who read their papers, understand suffi- 
ciently well what 2l pO'Wu-yilan is, so that it 
would be the merest affectation to translate 
it •* Hall of all commodities," and not a« 
**a Museum." Soo^edmes, however, a 



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PREFACE,. %vn 

brusque rendering into our commonplace 
term would ikprive iJse .Fi^giasfa timiirr fif 
lie I njiijimrm «r lis fnetfcal Chinese 
equivalent. " Fire-engine " is good enough 
for all ordinary purposes, but for rhetorical 
display it cannot pretend to compare with 
" the water-dragon that saves from fire." 

Ylian was, indeed, constantly confronted 
with the difficulty oi explaining an un- 
familiar phenomenon in familiar words. 
Kissing, for instance, greatly puzzled him ; 
and he was much exercised how to describe 
it at once neatly and with lucidity. jH^ 
had observed that, "when children grow 
up, their parents cease to be responsible 
for them, and leave them entirely to their 
own devices. The children on their part 
regard their parents as strangers, except 
that when they see them they show \ them 



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XVIH PREFACE, 

courtesy. The most respectful way in' 
which this is done is to present the lips 
to the lower part of the chin, and make 
a sound/' Better still, in the way of 
definition, is the fuller statement that, 
** when visiting their seniors, they must 
apply their mouths to the left and right 
lips of the elder with a smacking sound." 
This, it is interesting to note, he con- 
siders "very remarkable,*' as, when one 
comes to think of it, perhaps it is. Other 
strange social customs he describes no less 
graphically. "There are invitations," he 
says, "to skip and posture, when the host 
decides what man is to be partner of what 
woman, and what woman of what man. 
Then with both arms grasping each other 
they leave their seats in pairs, and leap, 
skip, posture, and prance for their mutual 



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PREFACE. XIX 

gratification. They call this skipping," he 
explains, " tanshunr the nearest approach 
he could get to our barbaric "dancing." 

Some of Yuan s desultory notes will not, 
it is regrettable to have to add, bear trans- 
lation : it is, however, the subject, not the 
treatment, that seems objectionable, for he 
enters our vices in his collection as dis- 
passionately as our virtues, and dilates in a 
calm but quite too outspoken manner on 
our sanitary arrangements. 

On the whole, he has done his work 
well, and deserves high praise for hia 
assiduity, considering the difficulties which 
he, pathetically enough, admits beset him. 
A • European who has been hooted and 
hustled in Canton will read with mixed 
feelings (joy, we fear, predominating), that 
" if a Chinaman happens to walk along 



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XX PREFACE. 

the streets the. crowd regards him as a 
curiosity and presses rounds like a swarm 
of ants, to stare at him* The women and 
children are the worst, attracted by the 
strange fashion of his clothes, and still 
more by his long pendant queue'' If, in 
addition (the weather being warm, or 
some relative deceased), Yiian happened 
to be wearing a white cloak, he excited, 
he complains feelingly, small boys to rude 
laughter, " for they said that I had come 
out by mistake in my night-shirt." 

In conclusion, it may be mentioned that 
the book has aroused much interest in 
China. There, to quote from the Hwapaoy 
an illustrated paper published thrice a 
month in Shanghai, '^ a class of men has 
formed itself who esteem highly Western 
systems, who study Western language and 



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PREFACE. XXI 

science, and to whom no food, dwelling, 
or clothes appear fit and fashionable ex- 
cept those of the West." It must be, 
then, that our manners and customs will 
become more and more a mark for the 
moralists of China. As long as the whole 
Cultured Empire was united in a lofty 
disapproval of the pranks which bar- 
barians played before high heaven and 
them, it was crushing a butterfly on the 
wheel to open the vials of censure : the 
silence of unutterable contempt sufficed. 
But now that so many of her youth are 
casting curious eyes westward and finding 
furtive joys in Western ways utterly 
opposed to the most elementary ideas of 
propriety, the keepers of China's national 
conscience and morals can hardly remain 
silent, and we shall have a lively and a 



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xxil PREFACE. 

highly entertaining time. The jeremiads 
of the Friend of China will be nothing 
to it; and the importation of opium seems 
of very 'little account when compared 
with that of low dresses, flirtation, and 
five-o clock teas. 

W. H. W. 



translator's notes are marked * 



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DESULTORY NOTES ON 
WESTERN CUSTOMS, 



EDITOR'S PREFACE. 

Of late years, since the old maritime 
restrictions were relaxed and trading-vessels 
have come from all parts, gentlemen of 
energy have taken to going abroad to see 
foreign lands and enlarge their ideas. 
Once arrived at any place, they promptly 
bring out a journal of their travels ; but 
while distances by sea and descriptions of 
celebrated spots are all set down with great 
minuteness, nothing but a vague outline is 

B 

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2 A CELESTIAL ON 

given of the character of the country and 
its inhabitants. 

My friend Ylian Hsiang-fu, a magistrate 
of remarkable resolution, in the course of 
a journey which he took last year through 
the Great West, made the most particular 
inquiries into everything he came across, 
from the system of government down to 
the habits of the people, and condensed 
the careful record thus made into a volume 
which he styled ** Desultory Notes on Wes- 
tern Customs." This I borrowed, intending 
to copy it, but before I could complete it he 
asked for it back,. and so it is only such 
portions as I could remember that I have 
been able to transcribe and send to press. 

To a gentleman of character at home, 
who may take up this book and run through 
its pages, each country and its people will 
appear much as they would were he travel- 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 3 

ling within the 'borders, and conversing 
wkh die inhabitants, of some Western state» 
And so at his own table and on his own: 
mat he may indulge himself in a peep 
abroad. 

The Chia-shin year of the Kuang-hsii, 
summer, in the 4th moon (May, 1884). 
Recorded by Hsiao-weng, of Siling, at his 
house at Shanghai. 

AUTHOR^S PREFACE. 

Some Western customs are identical with 
those of the Middle Kingdom, others 
widely different. When first observed, these 
cannot fail to excite surprise, so strange do 
they seem, but when one is accustomed to 
the sight of them they are looked upon 
as a matter of course. The following 
desultory notes, jotted down during my 



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4 A CELESTIAL ON 

travels, may afford materiar for amateurs 
and students of manners and customs, or 
may perchance supply topics for conveirsa- 
tion over the wine-cup or at the tea-table. 
Some of the facts recorded may not be 
new, and in that case I would ask indul- 
gence for the repetition. 

Written by the master of Ts'ang-shang ; 
copied by Hsiao-weng, of Siling. 



1. The Western custom is to give pre- 
cedence to the right hand, and to honour 
the woman rather than the man; hence, 
when walking together, the woman will 
precede the man, and when sitting will sit 
on the right, he on the left 

* No principle is more thoroughly estab- 
lished in China than the superiority of the 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 5 

left-hand side, yet last century the whole 
machinery of government was deranged 
for weeks by a heretic who maintained that 
of two tablets hung on a wall, precedence 
ought to be given to that on the right. 
The Council of State was summoned, and 
after an anxious and protracted debate the 
Emperor decided, ex cathedrd, that the 
heretic was correct : for tablets hung on a 
wall, particularly an imperial wall, must be 
regarded from the point of view of the 
wall itself, and not from that of a mere un- 
titled spectator. 



2. Husband and wife go arm-in-arm 
along the street, yet no one smiles ; a hus- 
band will perform any menial office before 
his wife, and nobody jeer at him. 



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6 A CELESTIAL ON 

* The author of an ingenious native work; 
'* The Sights of Shanghai/' draws attention 
to this reprehensible practice on the part, of 
foreigners and their wives, who "stroll 
about in the public gardens arm-in-arm 
and shoulder to shoulder, without any 
bashfulness whatever ; " for no Chinaman 
(except in a Frenchman's book) ever takes 
a man's arm, much less a woman's. In '' Le 
Fleuve des Perles," published last year with 
a laudatory preface by " G^n^rale Tcheng 
Ki-tong," the provincial judge is repre- 
sented as walking arm-in-arm with a widow 
through a main thoroughfare in Canton. 
The situation is striking and novel, for the 
general run of judges would as soon think 
of walking with a balloon or a cassowary 
as with a widow, if, which is very very 
doubtful, they ever thought of walking at 
all. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 7 

3. When three or four are in company 
and passing idly through the streets, they 
must walk abreast, and not in any strag- 
gling fashion. If they meet a woman, 
etiquette requires them to make way for 
her, and in so making way they must 
pass to the right and not to the left. 

* China is a country of nice gradations, 
where a younger brother may not pre- 
sume to walk abreast of an elder. As 
for yielding the path to a mere female, it 
would hardly occur to an orthodox Con- 
fucian ; moreover the paths are, in the 
south at least, t oo nar row to allow of 
much yieldjjag^fiCT^^jCW^umstances. 

4. When, taking their places at meals 
they must wait till the women are first 



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A CELESTIAL ON 



seated, when the men can occupy chairs 
next to them. The meal ended, they dis- 
perse in the same manner. 



5. While the women are at table, as a 
mark of respect to them, no man may 
smoke. After dinner the men must leave 
the table and go to another room to smoke ; 
or if there be no smoking-room, must wait 
till the women have gone out of the door. 
Occasionally, when the women have finished 
eating, they leave at once, purposely letting 
it be known that it is done out of com- 
passion. This is regarded as a gracious 
courtesy on their part. 

* Women as well as men smoke in China 
— a sickly powdered tobacco inhaled a 
thimbleful at a time. No Chinaman apolo- 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 9 

gizes for smoking in your presence ; he 
would expect rather an apology from you 
for not smoking with him. 



6. As meal-time, morning or evening, 
comes round, all, men and women alike, 
must change their clothes before sitting 
down to it. However young a child may 
be he must do the same. In taking soup 
you must not make a noise over it ; any- 
thing put out of the mouth should be left 
in the plate. At a banquet it is proper 
there should be music: the very largest 
hotels have always music at every meal. 

* In the north, as winter approaches, 
clothes once put on remain on till the 

spring. At a really convivial Chinese 

dinner a true gourmand sometimes clears 



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lo A CELESTIAL ON 

for action by removing his long outer cloak ; 
what he does over his soup and ^n the 
course of an extended feast is better im- 
agined than described. 



7. If a visitor calls, not only is he offered 
no tea, but he may please himself about 
smoking or not But when he enters and 
when he leaves, he and his host grip each 
other's hand. In seemg him out, the host 
does not descend the stairs or go outside 
his door. 

* Tea is always set before a visitor in 
China, a most exemplary practice. For 
when the visitor wishes to leave, all he has 
to do is to sip this tea ; or the host, as an 
unmistakable hint for him to leave, sips 
hiSi whereupon host and guest rise, and a 



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''THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' ii 

tedious struggle of politeness begins. The 
guest begs his host not to escort him to the 
door, the host insists on so escorting him ; 
precisely how far either will prevail is 
accurately known to both, having been 
settled for them three thousand years ago 
or so. It may be worth noticing that the 
Pidgin English phrase chin chin (•* to bow 
to") has its origin in the chHng chHng 
(*' please, please '') freely bandied about on 
these occasions. 



8. ^hen friends are sitting talking 
together they mention nothing nasty. If 
a man. were to speak of ordure, filth, or 
the like, in company, his hearers would 
be astounded. Some would perhaps get 
up and leave without looking at him, 



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12 A CELESTIAL ON \ 

wondering how the man could so mis- 
behave. 

* Nine-tenths of a Chinese jest-book 
would, if rendered literally, be impounded 
by the Lord Chamberlain; and untrans- 
latable, if not unspeakable, filth takes, 
quite adequately, the place of our White- 
chapel blasphemy. The want of social 
intercourse between the sexes has been 
blamed for this, but the women, as far 
as we have been able to judge, are as 
bad in these particulars as the men. 



9. Men and women out of doors all 
wear gloves, which they take off when 
they come in. At meals they take them 
off too. White is considered the most 
distinguished colour, and is worn at an 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 13 

audience with the queen, and by actors 
when they appear upon the stage. 

* " Gloves *' in the original are '* hand- 
sheaths." Coverings for the hand are 
unknown in China proper, where the long 
sleeves, reaching far below the finger-tips, 
serve instead. The nails, however, have 
their "sheaths" if the hands have not. 
Here are the lengths of the left-hand 
finger-nails of a Chinese dandy, as mea- 
sured by our Surveyor of Works : 

Thumb 2 inches. 

.ist finger i| „ 

2nd „ It\ „ 

Srcl „ 5i » 

4th „ ,. .4i „ 

Gloves to accommodate claws like this 
it would puzzle even Messrs. Dent to 
design. White is the colour of mourning 
in China. 



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14 A CELESTIAL 014 

10. Men and women alike wear hats, 
but of very different fashion. When 
going indoors, however, though it may be 
the depth of winter, they must take them 
off and bare the head, and when out of 
doors, even in midsummer, must keep 
them on, 

* The author knows not the distinction, 
so puzzling to the Western male, of hat, 
cap, and bonnet Women in his country 
do not wear any of these implements, 
but plaster their hair into quaint devices, 
solid (and lasting) enough to resist sun 
or rain. With a man, however, his cap 
plays a very distinguished part. Official 
rank is marked by it (as indeed with us), 
and It would be the height of rudeness 
in any Chinaman to remove his hat un- 
bidden in his equal's presence, whether 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 15 

indoors or out In summer a Chinaman 
will walk, even in a blazing sun, with 
no other protection to his shaven forehead 
than a folding fan ; but he is at such times 
very literally in undress. A servant in 
China should always wait on his master 
with his hat on. 



11. When two people meet it is con- 
sidered polite for them to take off their 
hats ; some only raise their hands to the 
tip of the ear and wave them without 
removing the hat. This would be the 
off-hand and casual course ; if they grasp 
each other s hand it is because they are 
more intimate. Though one be a man 
and the other a woman, no scandal is 
groused. 

* Chinese when meeting bow, their arms 



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l6 A CELESTIAL ON 

to their sides, then folding each his own 
hands, raise them in front of the face and 
shake them gently at one another. The , 
practice is admirable for foreign residents 
in the far East; for Chinese hands are 
all flabby and fish-like, and most of them 
dirty. Besides, the nails even on the 
right hand are inordinately long, and 
never very clean. There is not in China 
at any time overmuch of the charity that 
thinketh no evil ; where women are con- 
cerned there would seem to be none at 
all. A hand-shake between a man and a 
woman is as badly construed there as 
was ever a casual kiss in our own Divorce 
Court. 



12. For mourning black is used, and 
not white, and they wear mourning for 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 17 

their juniors. The visiting - cards of 
mourners always carry a black border. 
Women wear black crape hanging far 
down from the back of the head. The 
horses which draw the funeral cars and 
coaches are invariably of a black colour. 

* A man in China does not wear mourn- 
ing for those younger than himself, or 
a husband for his wife. White with them 
is the emblem of grief: white clothes, 
white shoes, white knob in the cap, 
even white false hair and tassel at the 
end of the queue. They cannot under- 
stand why at a festive dinner we should 
spread over the table so ill-omened an 
article as- a white cloth ; they prefer afi 
uncovered table painted or lacquered red, 
the colour of joy (and consequently of 
a bride's robes). A delicious mistake was 

c 

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i8 A CELESTIAL ON 

made by a writer some years back, who, 
in an article miscalled " F'acts about the 
Chinese," speaking of visiting-cards, stated 
that ** if the visit is made in the morning, 
this placard-like red ticket is white with 
blue letters." What his informant had 
rightly told him was that the red ticket 
(card) is changed to white when the owner 
is *' in mourning'^ A Chinese bier, usually 
as heavy as can be hired, and covered 
with a gorgeously embroidered pall of 
purple silk, is borne on men's shoulders 
by means of a series of red poles. The 
(desire pf the mourners (who precede it) 
"is that no jolt should disturb the dead 
man's rest; hence, even in the north of 
China, where alone horses are[ common, 
there would be great reluctance to entrust 
the coffin to a cart. 



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13. By the sides of the main streets are 
trees affording a continuous and close 
shade for miles; under them it is usual 
to place benches where people can rest. 
In between are laid out iron seats, ranged 
in rows and let on hire, sometimes a 
hundred or more, at the most a little over 
a thousand. 



14. Plantations are thick and flourish- 
ing; you see them everywhere. The 
Government has passed a law by which 
every one who cuts down a tree must 
plant another in its place. Though he 
may have bought the hillside and planted 
it himself, the owner must observe this 
law, Yet while woods are numerous, wild 
beasts and birds are exceedingly rare. 
You may travel through the country in 



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20 A CELESTIAL ON 

any direction for hundreds of miles and 
not see a single songster, — a sufficiently 
remarkable circumstance. 

* The desire to grasp a little present gain, 
or sheer inability to look ahead, causes 
Chinamen, the empire over, to cut down 
a tree as soon as it is a few feet high, and 
generally to recklessly deforest the country. 
The consequence is the appalling floods, 
or still more appalling droughts, which 
Europe will be called on every year to 
relieve until a new Taiping rebellion has 
scoured the land and left the trees time 
to grow. It is only fair to add that Li 
Hung-chang has published in his province 
of Chihli an exhortation to the people to 
plant saplings freely. The advice is un- 
fortunately a little late, and, even if it is 
followed, the saplings will be cut down long 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' zi 

before the climate has been renovated by 
their means. 



15. Of the trees the oak is most 
common, and next to that the! pine and 
cypress. Aspens and willows are exceed- 
ingly rare, and the wu t'ung is altogether 
unknown. Bamboos are numerous, but 
do not form groves. The names of other 
trees I do not know. Lofty trees are few 
and far between. 

* The wu t'ung, dictionaries tell us, is the 
eleococca verrucosa. What good timber 
is left in China is found in the south-west 
provinces, and in the hills above Foochow, 
but a great deal of heavy timber is im- 
ported from British Columbia, Bangkok, 
and the East Indies. 



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22 A CELESTIAL ON 

16. The Streets and main thoroughfares 
are either formed of large stones, or of 
square stone blocks placed in rows and 
firmly rammed down. Blocks of wood 
£^re also laid down to form the roadway, 
over which when carts and horses are 
driven there is no sound of wheel or hoof. 
They say that such roads will last a long 
time, because the earth is dry and not 
damp. Where there are railways under 
the street, the street is invariably laid 
with wood, as it is both light and noiseless. 

* The streets of a city in southern China 
are of the dimensions of an ordinary alley- 
way, and paved with large slippery slabs 
of stone, that serve at the same time to 
cover what they call the sewers. In 
Peking the streets are formed of earth 
plastered with mud and watered from 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 23 

what were once the main drains, but 
are now . 



17. Places of worship exist in every 
country, but are most numerous in Italy, 
where they are of incomparable height 
and magnificence. The wood and stone 
work is most elaborate and extravagant. 
Some are several hundred feet high, and 
cost many millions, the reason being that 
the Pope's capital is situated in that 
country. 

* Chinese temples, like all Chinese build- 
ings, are modelled on the ancestral tent. 
They are built with a back and sides of 
brick, a roof of tiles, supported by wooden 
pillars plastered and painted red, and a 
lattice-work front. In consequence they 



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24 A CELESTIAL ON 

soon fall into disrepair. They usually 
occupy, however, sites of great natural 
beauty, and wealthy natives are induced 
to build and restore them, less in the 
honour of religion (the religious sentiment 
scarcely exists in China) than as places 
where they may pass the summer. " The 
Pope '' is literally ** Prince " (his adherents 
would style him "Emperor") **of the 
Doctrine.'* 



18. None of their dwelling-houses are 
bungalows, but have all of them upper 
stories. Counting from beneath upwards, 
those houses which have the most stories 
are thought the best. To the eye, a 
building may seem to be only eight or 
nine stories high, but the observer does 
not know that below the house are one 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 25 

or more excavations. Hence the houses 
are really loftier than our pagodas. 

* Cellars are scarcely known in China, 
where the vast majority of houses are 
"bungalows/' or buildings without an 
upper story. 



19. When stories are doubled so that 
steps would be too numerous, or people's 
legs get too tired, they use a mechanical 
truck to ascend and descend by. All one 
has to do is to sit in the truck, and start 
the machinery with his hand, when it will 
rise or sink of itself as far as may be 
desired. 



20. Whether the upper floors are three 
or four, or even seven or eight, in number, 



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26 A CELESTIAL ON 

the Staircase ascending to them is in the 
form of a spiral with successive stages. 
Although all are not of the same pattern, 
the workmanship is always exceedingly 
fine. Each house must have one large 
and one small staircase, the large in front, 
the small behind ; precisely as families in 
the Middle Kingdom distinguish between 
the front and back doors. 



21. Though the dwelling-houses are 
Very lofty and spacious, it is only wealthy 
merchants or rich people who have a 
house to themselves ; the rest are all 
sublet, so that a house of six or seven 
stories would be divided among six or 
seven families, or even a dozen. The 
higher the floor, the lower is the cost, so 
that the very highest are the cheapest, 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 27 

the very lowest the dearest; but the 
ground-floor abutting on the street is only 
let for business premises. 

* The architectural unit in China is the 
brick tent already referred to. This is 
divided into three equal portions, either 
by partition walls of lalSi and plaster (or 
other material), or by imaginary planes 
through the two main beams. One 
portion (room, if you like) serves for the 
women's quarters, the rest as eating and 
sleeping accommodation for the*men. As 
the family becomes wealthier, two pre- 
cisely similar buildings are added at right 
angles to the original building, thus form- 
ing three sides of a small yard, the gate 
of which should always face south. The 
fu or palaces of Chinese princes are 

merely multiples of such a yard, magnified 

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38 A CELESTIAL ON 

somewhat, maybe, and adorned with 
devices in painted plaster, dwarf trees and 
distorted rockwork. 



22. For shop fronts and doors horizontal 
iron shutters in six or seven slabs are 
used. On either side is a mechanism for 
fastening them, and when they are to be 
opened or shut, this is shaken or moved 
with the hand and the shutters ascend or 
fall of themselves ; heavy as they are, they 
are moved as if they were light without 
the slightest waste of force. 

* Chinese shops as a rule are of no great 
size. They are separated from the street 
by a rail breast high, at right angles to 
which runs the counter. In the south 
coarse glass is coming into use, in imita- 



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'' THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 29 

tion of Western shops, but the vast majority 
are still open to the street. They are 
secured at night by wooden shutters. 



23. Doors must have locks, and the 
mechanism of these locks is very varied. 
One kind can be locked either from within 
or from without, but once locked can only 
be opened with a key. Another, though 
it can be locked both from inside and from 
out, will open at a push and requires no 
key. Another can only be locked from 
within, a fourth fastens itself as soon as 
opened. These two last cannot be opened 
from without ; you must wait till some one 
within opens them. Each has its special 
use. 

* The Chinese lock is a padlock of brass 

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36 A CELESTIAL ON 

or iron, in shape like a miniature Gladstone 
bag. The bar which goes through the 
hasp fastens into the body of the lock with 
a catch or spring, and the lock is opened 
by means of a key which depresses this 
spring or ciatch and enables the bar to be 
withdrawn. The key is a long thin piece 
with few or no teeth, and is the full length 
of the padlock. If small, it is commonly 
protected by a sheath or case hinged to 
it. Chinese doors are secured by a 
wooden bar. 



24. Staircases being so numerous and 
lofty require many hundred steps, which 
are made of stone or of wood, the material 
varying. But each has to be covered with 
velvet pile or some kind of cotton carpet- 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS r 31 

ing. When trodden on no sound is heard, 
nor do the feet sh'p. 

* Carpets are scarcely used, the sole of 
the Chinese boot being thick enough (say 
an inch and a half to two inches or so) to 
keep the foot warm without them. When, 
as sometimes in the yamin^ or official resi- 
dence, of a mandarin, they are laid down, 
they are as little respected as in Western 
America. Staircases, it has already been 
explained, there are, strictly speaking, 
none; where a Chinese house has an 
upper story, it is reached by means of a 
rickety ladder. 



25. In the middle of the streets, in the 
houses, on the walls, on the tops of roofs 
or pagodas are placed or let in carved or 



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32 A CELESTIAL ON 

engraved images of men and animals to 
add to the effect. The majority of these 
are made of stone, but they are occasion- 
ally of copper. Whether large or small, 
the workmanship is fine beyond all com- 
parison. 

* With the exception of the stone figures 
(of horses, sheep, camels, elephants, 
attendants, and the like) placed at the 
approach to some tomb of consequence, 
the emblematic marble lions at an officials 
gate, a bronze animal in a temple court- 
yard or imperial garden, and the wooden 
or plaster idols in a " josshouse,** no attempt 
at statuary is to be seen in China. The 
finials of certain buildings are decorated 
with the grotesque head of a procelain 
dragon, or other mythical beast, and a few 
carvings in bas-relief are seen here and 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 33 

there. The only adornments to their 
streets are p'aulou (pylow) or p'ai-fang^ 
qiemorial archways of wood or marble 
erected (at the family's expense) by im* 
perial permission to a distinguished officer, 
or some girl who has committed suicide 
on the death of her fiance, whom she has 
never seen. 



26. The style of bathing-houses also 
varies. At the cheapest you pay seventy 
or eighty cash, in addition to which the 
charges for towels and soap purchased do 
not exceed one hundred cash or so. The 
dearest of all are the Turkish baths, which 
for splendour and decoration have no 
equals; these charge two dollars a head. 
In the river currents are erected floating- 
houses resembling ships, where cold water 



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34 A CELESTIAL ON 

is let in and out for bathing purposes, 
jnuch as m the bathrocwn of a steamer; 
men and women have separate rooms, but 
if you bring your own womenkind you are 
j^llowed to bathe together. 

* About 1050 cash go to the dollar, 
the present value of which is 3^. 2d. A 
description of a Chinese bathing-house 
(which only a very self-denying or 
enthusiastic foreigner would enter) is 
given in the Healtheries volume on China 
(** Chinese Dwellings," by Dr. Dudgeon). 



27. The flooring of different stories is 
sometimes formed of small but long pieces 
of wood let in regularly* These are at 
once elegant and solid, and without the 
drawback of unevenness. For although 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 35 

the material is small, it is all taken from 
the heart of the wood, and large or long 
pieces are not desired. The method is a 
very reliable one. 

* Chinese floors are of tiles, bricks, or 
beaten earth, rarely of ill-fitting, because 
badly seasoned, planks. 



28. On Sunday the markets are for the 
most part closed, and no traffic is carried 
on. But tobacco-shops, coffee and eating- 
houses are kept open as usual. 

* Chinamen work the year round except 
at the new year and the great festivals. 
A Chinese immigrant to the Straits 
Settlements usually bargains for ten holi- 
days (of a day each) in the twelvemonth. 



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36 , ' A CELESTIAL ON 

29. The power of the Pope was in 
former times very great, and, in State affairs 
especially, the kings of the different 
countries obeyed his commands, not daring 
to contravene them. When they had 
audience with him they prostrated them- 
selves on their knees, and if they were 
suffered to sniff with their noses his feet 
they esteemed it an honour and a favour. 
Since he has been deposed by the King of 
Italy, he has withdrawn into the recesses 
of his palace and will not again govern. 
His power is greatly weakened and cannot 
henceforward revive. 

* The Chinese gods, with certain ex- 
ceptions, are subject to the Emperor, from 
whom they derive their authority and 
titles. The "certain exceptions" are for 
the most part the gods recognized in the 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' yj 

State Ritual (as Shangti, '*the Supreme 
Ruler," whom the Emperor alone, or' his 
deputy, may publicly worship). Buddhism 
and Taoism are regarded as heresies, biit 
their hierarchies are recognized by the 
Government, which bestows certain (not 
very high) rank on their abbots and lead- 
ing priests. Had the Catholic missionaries 
of two centuries back been content to 
accept a similar half-contemptuous, half- 
indulgent recognition, China might be, 
nominally at any rate. Christian now. 
The expulsion and proscription of the 
missionaries was due to the determination 
of the then Emperor not to share his 
authority pver his own subjects with the 
Pope. 

30. In selecting soldiers, store is set by 
a tall stature or remarkable size ; more- 



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38 A CELESTIAL ON 

over, the weight of their bodies is tested 
and must come up to a certain number of 
pounds before the man will be accepted. 
After the age of forty, the soldier is dis- 
missed from service, but an allowance is 
given him for maintenance during the rest 
of his life. 

* Soldiers are enlisted with little or no 
regard to their physical condition ; military 
officers, on the contrary, are promoted (in 
the first instance) in proportion to their 
skill and strength in bending bows and 
lifting heavy weights, A campaign over, 
the men are disbanded with a mere pit- 
tance for their travelling-expenses home, 
and even this is often withheld or em- 
bezzled by their officers. In consequence 
they are driven to plunder, and thence to 
organized brigandage and rebellion. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 39 

31. Soldiers wear their uniform clothes 
and caps all day long, even when not oi) 
service. Hence when they are passing 
along the streets you can know them at 
a glance for what they are, and by an in- 
spection of their dress can distinguish their 
regiment. 

* A Chinese soldier wears a uniform* 
jacket, with a circular badge on the back ; 
but, in the event of defeat, he easily throws 
this off and retires into the comparative 
safety of private life. 



32. The Custpms duties are changed 
each year after debate in the assembly. 
The most important are those on Manila 
cigars, tea, and spirits ; and hence the 
price of these three articles is very high, 



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40 A CELESTIAL ON 

and the penalties for smuggling them pro- 
portionately heavy. 

* China and Japan, being still in 
bondage to the extra-territorial principle, 
are obliged to keep to a tariff settled 
some thirty years ago, as this can only 
be changed with the approval of a dozen 
Treaty Powers, whose interests may differ 
among themselves. The import duty into 
China was calculated originally at the rate 
of five per cent, ad valorem; ** stores" 
for the private consumption of foreigners 
enter free. These duties are collected by 
a large staff of Europeans in the employ- 
ment of Sir Robert Hart. 



j53. The import duty on Manila cigars 
is for every pound of twelve [Chinese] 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' ^\ 

ounces five shillings and sixpence, or five 
and a half quarter-dollars. Tobacco-leaf 
per pound pays two shillings and sixpence, 
or two and a half quarter-dollars. Tea 
pays sixpence a pound duty, spirits per 
catty, two shillings, the perfumed or finer 
sorts twice that. 

* A Chinese ounce is one-third heavier 
than our ounce avoirdupois. 



34. Women must go out walking in the 
streets every day; if a man were to stop 
them, they could bring a charge against 
him, and he would, by express statute, be 
imprisoned for so many days as a warning 
and deterrent, 

* A Chinese opponent of railways urged> 
in a recent paper, that these would be use- 



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42 A CELESTIAL ON 

less, as you would get no travellers ; ** Th^ 
wives and daughters of a ^uxQg«9Sk take 
no pleasure in staying at hcm^ \ but, in the 
case of our womeiydiid, gadding about is 
held in great disrepute." 



35. A man is only allowed to wed one 
wife, even the sovereign can only have one 
queen ; the titles of secondary consort and 
" royal concubine " are unknown. Recently 
a law has been passed permitting widowers 
to marry again, just as widows are allowed 
to take a second husband. Hitherto there 
has been no such rule. 

* A Chinaman can only have one legal 
wife {ch*i)i but he may have as many con- 
cubines {ch^zeh) 2iS he can afford. The 
emperor, besides his empress, has a 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 43 

number of pin and fay^ ladies of the 
harem, by whom he may have lawful 
children. The late emperor was the son 
of an inferior consort, who, on his acces- 
sion, was raised to the rank of empress- 
dowager and equality with her lord's first 
wife, then living. The present young 
emperor on the day of his marriage was 
provided with two handmaids, ^st^s <£ 
fourteen aad sixteen. A Chinese widower 
may, indeed he frequently does, marry his 
deceased wife's sister; but it is death by 
Chinese law for a widow to marry her late 
husband's brother. 



36. The coinage consists of gold, silver, 
and copper money, all struck by the 
Government. No one dares to coin pri- 



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44 A CELESTIAL ON 

vately, since offenders meet with extreme 
punishment. 

* The only coin struck in China is the 
" cash," or sapeck, a compound of copper 
and sand (sand often predominating), 
circular, with a square hole in the middle. 
It is worth about one-twentyfifth of a 
penny. The currency of the country is 
silver, either in ingots (known to foreigners 
as " shoes ") or in broken lumps, weighed 
out by a steelyard. 



37. The people regard insult or disgrace 
as a matter of the utmost gravity, and 
there is no such thing as quarrelling and 
fighting, abuse, or bad language. If a 
man is struck or abused, he may apply to 
the magistrate for redress, and the offender 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 4S 

will be imprisoned or fined, no inquiry 
being necessarily made into the cause. 

* Chinamen have a great respect for 
"face," or reputation; but are neither 
decent nor dignified when they come to 
a quarrel. Blows they do not often come 
to, for though there exist treatises on 
boxing, the noble art is little practised. 



38. Their prisons are exceedingly spa- 
cious, as well as exceedingly clean ; such, 
indeed, as the Middle Kingdom has never 
had, either in ancient or modern times. 
With each prisoner the only fear is lest 
he should be uncomfortable or should fall 
ill ; and so in all matters of clothing, food, 
and surroundings he is far better off than 
he was at home. If they had to deal with 



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46 A CELESTIAL ON 

the rascaldom of the Middle Kingdom, 
these would infallibly get into trouble in 
order to get into prison ; and how could 
accommodation be found for them all? 
But the habit there is to attach so much 
importance to disgrace that they can afford 
to deal thus with their criminals. 

* Chinese gaols are an unspeakable 
abomination, happily too often described 
to call for description here. Not the de- 
fendant only is detained, but the prosecutor 
and the witnesses ; and it is far from un- 
common to read in an official report to the 
throne that a case has been closed because 
all parties to it " have died in prison." 



39, There are wooden ladders made of 
great height and length, which can be 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 47 

reared up so as to reach rooms on the 
fourth or fifth story of a house ; at the 
foot of the ladder are placed two wheels 
on which it runs, so that one man can 
push it along. Moreover, the ladder can 
be lengthened out to reach above a seventh 
or eighth story ; for it is a protection 
against the danger of fires, being designed 
to rescue persons living in the upper 
stories. Beneath the ladder is spread a 
hempen bag, as a protection against a 
false step and consequent injury. This 
ladder is always stationed at a corner of 
the street, and at nightfall a lamp is sus- 
pended above it. 



40. Fire engines (literally, " water 
dragons that save from fire") are elabo- 
rately constructed, and the plan on which 



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48 A CELESTIAL ON 

they are kept is even more ingeniously 
arranged* The engine is mounted on a 
horse carriage, and travels with the greatest 
rapidity. Previous to use, the horses are 
kept fastened in the shafts, the saddle, 
bridle, and the rest, and the drivers' uni- 
form clothes and hats, hung up in space. 
The men who are to drive the horses 
sleep at the back on boards prepared for 
them ; the coal fires in the engine are 
ready laid. When telegraphic news arrives, 
a warning-bell promptly sounds; at the 
first stroke of this bell, the apparatus 
moves of itself, and the boards on which 
the drivers are sleeping then and there 
stand upright; the boards being upright, 
the men are standing, and, even if asleep, 
must be aroused. One turn of the body 
and the uniform clothes and hats are on 
their backs and heads, a further move- 



k 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 49 

ment of the hand and the saddles and 
bridles descend of themselves upon the 
horses' backs without further troublfe. A 
match is struck and the coal blazes up* 
Not more than a minute has passed, yet 
they are already on the move and wielding 
the whip, hastening with all Speed to the 
5cene of the fire. This is indeed a con- 
trivance rarely seen. 

* There are native fire brigades in 
China, which do some service on occasion ; 
but the narrowness of the streets leaves 
little room for them to work. The chief 
protection against the frequent and dis- 
astrous fires in a Chinese city are the fire- 
walls, which isolate one quarter or group 
of houses from its neighbours. 



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50 A CELESTIAL ON 

41. Telegraphic fire-alarms are ready 
in every street and alley-way. A passer- 
by who may see a fire spring up can at 
once set them in motion ; it is not neces- 
sary to wait till the people of the locality 
affected come themselves and report. 
Further, it is obligatory to knock at the 
doors and beat on the gates of the neigh- 
bours right and left, and tell them to come 
out and escape. 



42, Fire insurance companies not only 
insure buildings and goods, but make a 
special point of insuring rents. A term of 
three or of five years is agreed upon, and 
if before the lapse of that period the place 
is destroyed by fire, the rental which the 
owner could not legally recover is made 
up to him by the insurance office. Hence 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 51 

when an alarm of fire is raised all that 
need be done is to open the door and 
escape, no regard need be paid to anything 
else. 

* Insurance was unknown in China till 
its introduction by Europeans. The very 
word was at first copied {tnsu), but aban- 
doned later for a coined compound {pao- 
ksien, ''protection agaJa^fiq^s"). 



43, Photographs of the sovereign and 
his consort may be copied by the people, 
nor is this considered disrespectful. They 
are frequently hung on the walls of shops 
as an ornament, and are allowed to be 
exposed for sale in the principal streets. 

* A portrait of the Emperor would re- 
quire to be treated in China with all the 



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S2 A CELESTIAL ON 

reverence due to the Emperor himself,— 
and as this involves a chronic state of 
kneeling and head-bumping, it is clear 
that such things would be scarcely de- 
sirable as household furniture. 



44. A teacher does not use the stick to 
his pupil, nor does a master abuse his 
servant. In the intercourse of associates 
especially, blows, insults, abuse, and vitu- 
peration are unknown. If a word which 
was felt to be a little wanting in respect 
escaped any one, the rest would separate 
themselves from him and avoid him, look- 
ing on him as a boor, and unworthy of 
their company. 

* The measure of an offence in China 
is so many blows, administered in the case 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 53 

of schoolboys on the head, and in the case 
of criminals elsewhere. 



45. In the public building for the de- 
posit of books [? the British Museum] 
there is no volume which is not forth- 
coming. Each author with a work to 
publish must first send in a copy, dis- 
obedience being punished by statute. 
This place of book deposit any one may 
visit to examine a book, though he is 
not allowed to remove it^ permission 
being merely given to bring with him 
pen and ink and take a copy of any 
extracts. Not the slightest charge is 
made. 

* There are libraries attached to certain 
colleges established here and there by 



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54 A CELESTIAL ON 

literary or patriotic officials, such as the 
one recently founded at Canton by the 
Viceroy, Chang Chih-tung, but these 
seem to be available only for students 
on the foundation. 



46. Children without distinction of sex 
must by law go to school. For faniilies 
without means there are free schools, 
where no charge is made. If after the 
age of eight years they are not sent to 
school a fine is imposed by statute. 

* As a rule a schoolmaster is engaged 
on a year's agreement to teach the boys 
of a family or village ; the girls are left 
untaught, except in some of the wealthier 
houses, not because they are considered 
mentally deficient, but because it is ob- 
viously extravagant to educate at your 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 55 

own cost somebody else's daughter-in-law. 
The vast majority of boys leave school 
too early to have gained much practical 
benefit from it ; only a very small propor- 
tion can read and write. 



47. The languages of the various 
countries of the Great West are not 
identical ; only the names by which chil- 
dren call their father and mother, "papa'* 
and *' mamma," are the same everywhere ; 
indeed, for some . inscrutable reason, are 
precisely similar to those of the Middle 
Kingdom. 



48. As regards a girFs marriage, pre- 
vious to the age of twenty-two her parents 
can control it ; that age passed, she does 
not wait for her parents* commands, nor 



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56 A CELESTIAL ON 

does she need the services of a go- 
between ; the two parties come to a verbal 
agreement and the match can then take 
place. 

* A marriage in China is a civil con- 
tract, and, like all Chinese bargains, re- 
quires a middleman or ** go-betwee.n," — in 
most cases an old woman who makes a 
profession of it Neither of the principal 
persons concerned (t;he bride and bride- 
groom) has anything to say in the matter. 
Thq match is often arranged, indeed, when 
they are mere infants, as the first duty, 
almost the only duty, a Chinaman owes 
to his son is to get him married. The 
bride is always brought to the husband's 
house, and the young couple continue to 
form part of his parents* family and to- 
live in the old compound. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS ^ 57 

49. When sons and daughters are grown 
up, the parents need no longer look after 
them, but may let them be altogether 
their own masters. Children then regard 
their parents as strangers, and merely 
show them courtesy when they see them. 
The most respectful form of this courtesy 
consists in applying the lips to the lower 
part of the chin and making a sound. 



50. Women for the most part arrange 
their own nuptials. Every woman engaged 
must wear upon the finger a plain gold 
finger-ring, as a distinguishing mark. 
Rings engraved or inlaid with pearls or 
jewels may be worn according to fancy, 
being of no consequence. 

* Even a Chinese mother does not kiss 

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S8 A CELESTIAL ON 

her baby, though she will press it to her 
cheek; there is no term in Chinese for 
the conventional or affectionate kiss, A 
married woman is distinguished by the 
style of her hair, now no longer allowed 
to hang down in a queue; an engaged 
girl (that is, a wife not yet brought to her 
husband's home, for an engagenlent is as 
binding as a marriage) does not differ 
in appearance from an unengaged. Rings 
are worn, just as people here tie knots 
in a handkerchief, as aide-memoires^ but 
they have nothing to do with marriage. 



51. Women may travel by boat or 
conveyance unattended, going to great 
distances, without the least surprise being 
felt. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 59 

52. M^n from twenty years onwards 
let the moustache and beard gradually 
grow, it being the rule not to shave, but 
to allow the hair to grow long. After 
the age of fifty or sixty they shave off the 
hair from the upper lip, remarking that 
their life's strength is approaching decay, 
and they may now cease to grow the 
moustache which is the outward sign of 
vigour. 

* It is not usual in China to let beard 
or moustache grow before the age of forty. 
A civil magistrate, however, will let his 
grow as early as it will, as his object is 
to look old ; a military officer, for the 
contrary reason, shaves till late in life. 
Beards are always started in the first two 
years of each lustrum (at 21, 22 ; 26, 27; 
31, 32, and so on), merely because a couplet 
runs — 



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6o A CELESTIAL ON 

** One, two, three, four, five, 
Live, age, ail, die, strive/' 

For long life is an object of desirc-r— one 
of the Five Blessings of this very human 
people. 



,53. Paper rags can be resuscitated into 
paper, and cotton rags or refuse cotton 
will make paper too ; broken glass can go 
into the furnace and be moulded anew, 
while scraps of foreign iron can be melted 
down and take a fresh gloss. 

* One of the few quasi-religious acts 
that sincerely commends itself to an ortho- 
dox Confucian, is the careful collection 
of all scraps pf printed or written paper. 
When collected, these are by no means put 
through the mill again,^ but are solemnly 
burnt in honour of the God of Letters. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 6i 

Even certain playing cards bear, side by 
side with the very oriental curse against 
imitators (" May their sons be bandits and 

their daughters "), the stereotyped 

entreaty, *' Pray spare printed paper." 



54. As regards works of art, they are 
very particular and require, whether in a 
drawing of things or of men, the greatest 
minuteness of workmanship. Prices are 
high, a single picture running perhaps to 
ten thousand crowns. In practising this 
art, men and women are on the same foot- 
ing, but women are cleverer than men, 
hence the improper pictures handed down 
are very fine. These subjects have been 
recently interdicted, and are kept some- 
what in the background. But a single 
figure of a man or woman, though bare 



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62 A CELESTIAL ON 

and without garments, is not yet dis- 
allowed, on the score of the aid it affords 
to a critical study. I have seen in the 
museums here and there statues of men 
in stone or brass, naked figures reclining 
or standing, yet women will go pencil in 
pocket, to copy them, and brush in hand 
will keenly examine them without in any 
way exciting surprise. I have also heard 
that a drawing master about to model a 
woman, will seek some slim-waisted neat- 
figured girl and order her to take off her 
clothes and lie prone, when he faces her 
and plies his brush, in order that no detail 
may be inexact. The picture finished, she 
will go away rewarded with some money, 
yet not more than a few dollars or so. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 63 

55. Illicit intercourse between men and 
women there is no law to prohibit, whence 
it comes that children born out of wedlock 
are very numerous, and there are special 
houses established for r^iring them, like 
the orphanages of the Middle Kingdom, 
in which they are cared for and taught 
until they are fourteen years of age, and 
can maintain themselves either by starting 
in business or as labourers. Before attain* 
ing the age of fourteen, the father of the 
illegitimate child must contribute so much 
a year, which sum varies accorc^ng to his 
apparent means. Should he refuse, the 
erring mother appeals to the magistrates 
and prosecutes him. 

* It is very dif5ficult to say what con- 
stitutes illegitimacy in China, where the 
children of a handmaid have equal rights 



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64 A CELESTIAL ON 

with those of the wife. It has even been 
held that a child born in adultery may be 
his natural father's heir ; but, as a general 
rule, the connection of the parents must 
be recognized by the man's family or clan 
before the heirship of their children is 
admitted. 



56. Their school system is most ex- 
cellent. There are boys' schools, girls' 
schools, high schools, and infants' schools. 
The style of the clothes and cap worn 
differs for different schools, just as the 
uniforms of soldiers or militiamen differ. 
The scholars form into companies and 
bands and may be known at a glance. 



67. Women sometimes pierce the lobe 
of the ear, sometimes not, according to 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 65 

their individual taste. Hence some wear 
ear-rings, others not. As for bracelets, it 
is the rule still to wear them ; but the left 
and right arm has each its own pattern, 
it not being necessary that they should 
form a pair. 

* Chinese women, indeed Chinese of 
either sex, wear bracelets; and ear-ring 
snatching is a common and dastardly offence. 
When money is plentiful, the ornaments 
are of gold ; if the family falls into difficul- 
ties, the gold jewellery is sold or pawned, 
and substitutes of silver worn instead. 



58. Men carry umbrellas solely to keep 
off rain, not to keep off the sun, but women 
use them both in fine and rainy weather. 
For men to brandish fans is exceedingly 



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^ A CELESTIAL ON 

rare, but women as soon as they are con- 
fronted by the summer heat, wave them 
about to create a draught both when walk- 
ing and when sitting. But the kind used 
is the folded fan only, and that of the 
largest size. Silk fans and fans of plantain 
leaf or feathers are not used. 

* Even Chinese troops on the march 
will carry umbrella and fan. Fans are 
distinguished in China as masculine and 
feminine ; the former is a folding fan that 
can be worn in the nape of the neck ; the 
latter is the fixed or screen fan of painted 
silk or feathers, said by a Chinese poetess 
to be peculiarly appropriate to a woman, 
because, like her, " it is much sought after 
in spring and 3ummer, but tossed con- 
temptuously aside in autumn days." 



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'' THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 69 

Post-offices are very large, and are 

perty of the Government You 

rchase a ticket,— in the Middle 

these are known as "devil 

then stick it on the face of the 

ch you drop into a tube. It will 

and without danger of loss, to 

on, whether to some place at 

! , in the neighbourhood, to the 

ich it is posted. The tube 

streets, and every day men 

I ! nrs to collect its contents. 

lo not have to pay 

is cheap compared 

e Kingdom. 

China are private 

aipeting against one 

z on the whole fairly 

.ay will carry a psickage 



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68 A CELESTIAL ON 

60. Outside the front door is a handle 
which sets in motion a tinkling bell 
suspended inside as a means of summoning 
people to open the dbor. Each room 
must likewise have its own apparatus to 
be made use of in calling people ; in the 
place where the bells move, the numbers 
of the different rooms can be . distin- 
guished, so that tio mistake is made. An 
electric apparatus is also used, a still more 
excellent contrivance. 

* Door bells are quite unknown in 
China. There you hammer, with fist or 
foot, on the door, and call out to "open." 
A servant is summoned by the one word 
current throughout the eighteen provinces, 
/at, — " come here, you ! " 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 69 

61. Post-offices are very large, and are 
the property of the Government You 
first purchase a ticket,— in the Middle 
Kingdom these are known as "devil 
heads," — then stick it on the face of the 
letter, which you drop into a tube. It will 
go at once, and without danger of loss, to 
its destination, whether to some place at 
a distance, or, in the neighbourhood, to the 
town in which it is posted. The tube 
stands in the streets, and every day men 
come several times to collect its contents. 
Receivers of letters do not have to pay 
postage. The system is cheap compared 
with that in the Middle Kingdom. 

* Post-offices in China are private 
establishments competing against one 
another, and are on the whole fairly 
trustworthy. They will carry a package 



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70 A CELESTIAL ON 

of any reasonable size or weight, and in- 
sure it too. Postage (known as "wine 
money") is made payable by the receiver, 
because it is felt that the post-office will* 
in that case, be more certain to deliver it. 
Rates vary with opportunities. Govern- 
ment despatches are conveyed by a system 
of mounted couriers, who cover the ground 
at a great pace ; but no private letters can 
be sent by their means. Chinese postage- 
stamps were unknown till the close of 
1888 or the beginning of 1889, when they 
were introduced into Formosa. It is true 
that stamps labelled "China" have been 
procurable since 1878, but these are issued 
by the Foreign Maritime Customs Post, 
and are in no sense Chinese. For the 
Provincial Government of Formosa some 
beautifully engraved stamps were supplied 
by an English firm io 1888, but these 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS!" li 

again have never been used for postal 
purposes: at the present time they do 
efficient duty on the Taipeh-Kelung line 
as railway-tickets. The only real Chinese 
postage-stamp is a label, some one and a 
half inch by two inches, found on envelopes 
sent over the official routes in North 
Formosa. It is simply a printed slip in- 
cribed Formosa Government [or Mer- 
cantile, as the case may be] Post. From 

office year month day 

hour. To office, with its counter- 
foil. It is entirely destitute of dragons or 
heads of any kind. Foreign stamps, by 
the way, are not called " devil heads " in 
foreigners' hearing (there might otherwise 
be trouble), but " doll's heads," or " head- 
lings.'* 



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72 A CELESTIAL ON 

62. In the front door is a horizontal 
slit enabling people to insert letters and 
papers; inside the door is a tube to re- 
ceive them. As they are inserted a pull 
is given to the bell or two or three raps 
made on the door, to let those inside know 
that they should open it and get their 
letters. 



63. Men or women employed as 
labourers when coming to their daily work, 
or resting for their meals, are tied down 
to a fixed time. This time they may not 
exceed by five minutes, under penalty of 
dismissal. 

- * Time is really of very little account in 
China, where every transaction is under- 
stood to be subject to the universal law of 
ch'ah-pU'taWy '* there or thereabouts." 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 73 

64. When summoning servants there is 
no need to call out to them, for every- 
where are placed bell-pulls or an electric- 
wire is used. A button is arranged on 
the party-wall, and when this is pressed 
the servant will answer to the sound and 
come, yet will not venture to walk straight 
in, but will first knock gently on the door 
twice, and on hearing a response will then 
enter. 

* If a foreign official has an interview 
with a Chinese, even of high rank, the 
yamin (office) servants will crowd into the 
room to listen to the conversation. 



65. All goods removed, no matter how 
far or how near, are placed on carts; 
lighter articles, and those more easily 



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74 A CELESTIAL ON 

moved, on the head, even women doing 
this. They are never carried across the 
shoulder, and so a porter's pole or bearer*s 
bar I have not set eyes on. 

* The porter's pole is an institution. 
So strong an affection has a Chinese coolie 
for it that if his burden will not bear 
division he prefers to double it by tying 
an equal weight to the other end of the 
pole, rather than carry it in his hand un- 
aided. 



66. The middle and lower classes do 
not as a rule engage maid-servants, but a 
wealthy family will certainly have both 
maid-servants and wet-nurses. The wet- 
nurses wear a distinctive style of head- 
dress by which they may be known at once. 

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* Maid-servants in China are usually 
slave -girls purchased in early youth* 
When grown up, they are either given 
away in marriage or taken into the owner's 
harem. 



67. Those who have no servants will, 
both men and women, go to an eating- 
house to take their morning and evening 
meals, bringing their sons and leading 
their daughters there on the score that it 
is cheaper so. 



68. Wealthy families, as every summer 
comes round, invariably fix on some spot 
where they may escape the heat. Yet the 
weather there really is never oppressively 
hot and this is merely an acquired custom, 
they holding that a family which did hot 



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76 A CELESTIAL ON 

avoid the heat would not be looked on 
as respectable, and so, as the season 
approaches, every one goes for a time to 
live in the country or at the seaports or 
at some celebrated spot. In the cool of 
autumn they return. 



69. Newspapers are retailed in the 
streets and alleys at small booths, or are 
carried in the hand, and cried for sale 
along the streets. At hotels and eating- 
houses, and at coffee-rooms, a special room 
for looking at the newspapers is set apart. 
They are laid out there in a heap and 
people may sit and read them. 

* Until comparatively recently there 
was no native newspaper in China. (The 
Peking Gazette . is a collection of official 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' yj 

documents published under authority and 
without comment.) About eighteen years 
ago the Shin Pao^ or Shanghai News^ 
was started as a commercial speculation 
by a foreign firm in that part, and has 
proved a great success. It was followed 
by the Hu Poo, also at Shanghai^ and the 
Shih Poo at Tientsin. These papers, 
however, are all owned by foreigners or 
are under foreign protection. The only 
native paper in China proper, not so pro- 
tected is, I believe, the Kwang Poo, or 
Canton Gazette. 



70. Objects of insurance are numerous, 
even articles of household use can be 
insured. For instance, for so many strik- 
ing clocks you pay yearly according to the 
rate of premium so -much, and every week 



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78 A CELESTIAL ON 

a man will come to the door with a key 
and will wind them up for you, or if they 
are broken or injured will repair them 
from time to time. Window glass in your 
walls can be paid for at so much a year, 
and every week a man will come and clean 
it, or if it is broken will replace it. Carpets 
will be taken away by him, cleansed of all 
dirt and dust, and put away in a dry place. 
Moth holes will be filled up according to 
the pattern, and when midsummer is past, 
he will bring the carpet back to your door, 
spread it, and nail it down for you. The 
principle applies to every article, for every- 
thing can be similarly dealt with. 



71. The capital invested in vegetable 
gardens will be many thousands. The 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 79 

more expensive kinds are sown in beds 
over which is placed a glass cover and 
under which a flue has been made for a 
coal stove. This causes them to sprout 
and grow quickly so that the shoots and 
leaves are fresh and crisp beyond all com- 
parison. 



72. For manure they use ordure made 
up into a fine powder. This is wrapped 
in paper parcels, and a hole having been 
made under the roots of the plant the 
parcel is placed in it, enabling the roots to 
absorb nourishment without the leaves of 
the plant being daubed with filth, 

* In China manure (chiefly fermented 
night-soil) is applied to the leaves, not the 
root, to the discomfort and danger of the 



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8o A CELESTIAL ON 

salad eater. Hence the fashion at one 
time common among foreign residents 
there of the washing of the salad by the 
hostess in front of her guests. 



73. Jesus was nailed to death upon a 
cross; therefore those of His religion 
worship the cross as exceedingly holy. 
The tortured body of Jesus nailed to death 
is hung upon it, not as in the Middle 
Kingdom, where the followers of that 
religion merely worship a cross. 



74. For a woman to grow a moustache 
is rare in the Middle Kingdom; but in 
every country of the Great West it is con- 
stantly seen, and is not considered strange. 
Nay, they have a jest to the effect that 



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" those; foreign devils.'' 8i 

Providence gave them the hair to embellish 
their ugliness. ... 



75. When women go to Court they 
regard a bare skin as a mark of respect, 
and on ordinary occasions, when they meet 
their parents, they must apply their mouths 
to the right and left lips of the elder with 
a smacking sound, — which is exceedingly 
strange. 



76. Women consider large breasts and 
a small waist desirable ; but while the 
waist can be compressed so as to become 
small, the breasts cannot be naturally 
enlarged. A great number, then, have a 
contrivance of wickerware made which is 
concealed under the bodice on either side 

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82 A CELESTTAL OPiT 

of the choit; and this they cbft^ider an 
adornment ..." 

* The ideal of female beauty in China 
is a slight slim figure topped by a broad 
round face (plastered and painted), and 
barely supported on two hoofs crushed 
into embroidered shoes three inches long. 
The loose and shapeless jacket completely 
Conceals the outlines of the person as far 
as the knees. Pantaloons in the south 
fall freely to the ankle, but in the north 
are tied tightly round it, emphasizing in 
foreign eyes the ugliness of the crushed 
feet. 



77. Women who are shortsighted will 
mount spectacles in public ; even yoimg 
girls in their teens will do the same, and 
so walk along the streets^ and it. is not 
regarded as strange. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' • 83 

* It fe not considered polite in China to 
look at a friend through glasses, so that 
whijb the hat i^ kept on; spect^cle$ should 
always be removed in talking to a native 
acquaintance, or touched apologetically 
anyway. 



78. If a inan does not smoke or drink 
he is universiilly' respected arid his (X)nduct 
is donsidfered ifteritofious* As regards 
wonien, most of them drihk, but exceed-* 
ingly few $moke^ 

*• The Ghin^e are abstemious drinkers, 
but inveterate smokers, women as well as 
men. There exist, nevertheless, certain 
societies (one m particular, the White 
Glolhe^ Sect; that 'goes aboiit in chronic 
mbijrntng) which bind fliemselves to ab- 



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84 A CELESTIAL ON 

stinence from tobacco, as well as from 
their substitute for wine — a liquor half- 
way in nastiness between lukewarm beer 
and tepid whiskey. 



79. Maid-servants and young lads are 
very useful in service. Their wages and 
food only cost some two or three dollars 
a month, while they are both very sharp 
and most trustworthy. There is nothing 
that they can't be set to do, and so every 
one is delighted to employ them. 

* A Chinese female servant (a hired' 
nurse), in a native family will get besides 
her food perhaps only half a dollar (say 
IS. yd.) a month. Foreign missionaries 
would give her (to include food) four 
dollars or so ; foreign merchants or officials, 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' Sj 

from SIX dollars upwards. A hou^e coolie 
receives from a native a dollar and a half 
(4^. 9^/.) ; from foreigners, three, four, or 
five dollars (lor. to i6j.) a month. A 
** boy/* or man housemaid, three dollars 
in the one case, a minimum of six in the 
other. 



80. The monthly wages of door porters, 
footmen, or valets are some thirty or forty 
dollars, food being sometimes supplied 
and sometimes not, and uniforms provided, 
— but there is no fixed rule. 



81 • Their womenkind can all write and 
read, even the wives of serving men ; the 
reason being that every one goes to school 
in early youth. Some can read but not 
write, though these are not many. 



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86 A CELESTIAL ON 

82. Persons in extreme poverty : and 
unable to make a living sometimes put 
an end to themselves, but their methods 
of suicide are most startling to hear of. 
Sometimes they will ascend a platform 
several thousand feet in height and throw 
themselves off, and so seek a speedy death; 
or they will lie down upon the railway 
track, submitting to be killed under the 
wheels, to have their bodies crushed and 
their bon^s splintered,-^a most pitiable 
thing. 

* Suicide is encouraged in China. A 
man who has a grudge against his neigh- 
bour will kill hin^'self in that neighl^our s 
shpp (most Chinameii keep^ shop), certain 
that his e^emy will be punished by la^w for 
having df iven him to the act A gitl who, 
on hearing of the death of her betrothed 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS."" 87 

(whom she has never »en), will starve 
herself to death, is held to have acted 
with such luminous propriety that a special 
memcfrial reporting her "chaste conduct*' 
is in most cases seat by the high provin- 
cial authorities to the Emperor, who gives 
her family gracious permission to erect an 
arch to her memory. (How often this 
suttee — for such in effect it is — is forced 
on the victim by her male relatives it is 
better not to inquire). Sometimes there 
is an epideipicof suicide among the girls 
of a neighbourhood, who agree among 
themselves to take this method of avoid- 
ing the miseries of a mother-in-law. The 
usual methods of Chinese suicide are 
hanging, drowning, and, commoner than 
either nowadays, opium poisoning* 



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88 A CELESTtAL ON 

83. Beggars, too, are nuhiei'ous, somc^ 
times carrying something and pestering 
people with it, as for instance matches. 
Or they will drum: upon a musical instru- 
ment, or sing a stave, asking contributions 
from door to door. Small boys by the 
side of carriages will leap on all fours like 
a tiger, or stand on their heads like crickets, 
to induce folks to give. Others point t6 
their mouths arid so ask for food, these all 
belonging to the afflicted classes. But 
every one must ct^Ver up his person, so as 
not to exhibit his nakedness. 

* China abounds with beggars, who, with 
the Chinese instinct for combination, form 
guilds, and levy shameless tribute on shop- 
keepers, by exposing their loathsome per- 
sons at the door till alms are given. The 
police do not interfere ; their raison dHre 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' S9 

is not to check nuisances, but to collect 
money for themselves and their masters. 



84. Manufactories and street shops print 
an advertisement much like our price-lists, 
with pictures and letterpress of a most 
elaborate description. This is sometimes 
bound up in the form of a book or a pam- 
phlet and distributed to passers-by in order 
to attract custom. 



85« Pawnshops are controlled by the 
magistrates, but kept by the people. Thir- 
teen months is the limit, and interest is 
one-half per cent. When the article is 
being offered for pawn, the receipt for its 
original purchase-money must be produced, 
or else a receipt for rent exhibited, or the 



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90 A CELESTIAL ON 

landlord called in as a s»urety; otherwise 
the article will not be taken. The pawn- 
ticket is deposited at a particular place 
where, at a trifling charge, a receipt is 
given ; when redeeming the article, this 
receipt is used to recover the ticket, and 
with the ticket the article is redeemed ; 
the whole resembling a form of insurance. 

* No Chinaman feels any hesitation 
about pawning his belongings, as in his 
country the exceedingly numerous pawn- 
shops are used quite as much for ware- 
housing suilnmer or winter articles in the 
off season as for raising the wind. They 
are divided into different classes, and pay 
the authorities, directly or indirectly, for 
their license. " Interest at one-half per 
cent" means, in Chinese eyes, six per cent, 
per annum (or six and a. half, if the year is 



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" THOSE FOREIGp DEVILS^' 9* 

intercalary), as interest with them is always 
reckoned by the mpnth. 



86. Hotels are very large, and are 
luxurious to the limit of desire, so that 
they might be thought to be some prince's 
abode. The charge for rooms and food 
will amount per diem for each person to 
three or four dollars, eight dollars, ten 
dollars, or more. The djning-hall is most 
beautifully decorated, and persons not 
staying at the hotel may go there to 
dinner. Men and women are seated 
together indiscriminately, just as on board 
a steamer. . 

* Inns in China are very far from being 
luxurious ; most back sculleries in England 
would be palaces by comparison. Nothing 



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^t A C£L£ST/AL on 

is provided except a rickety wooden table 
and bench, a brick-Iined ledge to sleep on, 
and a varied assortment of evil insects. 
The doors won't shut, and if there are 
windows they are made of torn paper. 



87. Eating-houses are numerous, some 
providing accommodation for visitors, 
others not. AH utensils laid out^ and all 
articles of food provided, are in excellent 
order, and handy for use. 



88« At a tea-house each guest may ordef 
wine only, or water, or coffee, or milk, and 
so on, according to his fancy. There are 
also saloons served by girls, open in the 
evening. At these the visitors are par- 
ticularly numerous. 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS J" 93 

89, At public-houses, eating-houses, and 
hotels, and on steamers, there is always at 
each meal a bill of fare setting forth the 
various delicacies prepared, as soup or 
confectionery, for the guests to look at. 
They may, if they like, choose by this what 
they will eat. The bill of fare is elabo- 
rately got up, and is either in the form of 
a slip inserted into a holder, or of a folded 
paper, or merely of a card laid on the table 
for the guests to pass round. 



90, The great majority of shops employ 
women to serve at the counter ; even the 
very largest establishments do this. Visi^ 
tors may jest with them without causing 
offence ; indeed, I have heard that the idea 
is to attract custom. 



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94 ' A CELESTIAL ON 

Singing girls are an occasional attrac- 
tion at certain Chinese dinners, particularly 
in that Paris of China, Shanghai. They 
don't, according to our barbarous system 
of riielody, sing, and their demeanour is 
stolidly decorous. But women are never 
seen behind a Chinese counter. 



01. To places where business is very 
brisk there are no empty walls on which 
trade announcements could be posted, and 
accordingly hexagonal ox circular kiosks of 
some height are set up right and left by 
the side of the main streets close to one 
another, supported on iron pillars and 
having glass let into the sides. The glass 
is pasted over with advertisements in slich 
fashion as to be conveniently visible in the 
day time ; at night a lanip is Ik inside, and 



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" THO&E PdREIGk DJiVILS:' 95 

the various items are rendered still more 
legible. But the cost of advertising in this 
way is considerable. 



92, Shop doors are altogether destitute 
of hanging signboards, but have the shop 
name and description of goods sold written 
either on the glass windows or in the join- 
ing of the eaves or on the space under the 
sill, 

* -A Chinese shop sign is usually a long 
perpendicular board of blaick or red, having 
upon it the shop sign (as " Endless Pros- 
perity," '' Union of Profits,*' never the 
owner's name), in raised gilt letters. 
Tradesmen have long advertised by means 
of small posters, and they now freely avail 
themselves of the vernacular press, the 



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96 A CELESTIAL ON 

advertisement sheet of which would repay 
a close study. 



93. The larger kind of shops form 
buildings of several stories, and there is 
nothing that is not kept in stock, — on the 
same principle as the Peking goods* ware- 
houses in the south of the Middle King- 
dom, But then the capital invested is 
many millions, and there are upwards of a 
thousand shopmen — which is hardly the 
case with us. Prices are marked at a 
figure which is not changed. The daily 
takings amount to several myriad crowns. 

* A legend in most Chinese shops reads, 
" No two prices," but every Chinese shop- 
man will haggle willingly for an hour, 
and give heavy discount to a persevering 
bargainer. 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 97 

* 94. Should the Sovereign have purchased 
any of the articles sold at a shop, that shop 
will display, over the door or on the roof, 
the image of two animals, a Hon and a 
horse, or will exhibit the flag and arms of 
the State, as a proof of the special honour 
done them. 



95. The various shopkeepers in the 
business quarter leave no one on guard at 
night, but lock the doors and go home to 
sleep, returning in the morning with a key 
to open their shops and resume business. 
So very close is the patrol kept by the 
police that there is no fear of robbery. 

* Chinese shopkeepers sleep in a loft 
above the shop, or in the shop itself, and 
expect from the police not protection but 
extortion. They are rarely disappointed. 



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98 A CELESTIAL ON 

96. The silver coins of the Great West 
are current in the Middle Kingdom, where 
they are known as "foreign mbney/^ or, 
because they have an eagle impressed upon 
them, as "eagle foreigns." Of late they 
have been erroneously styled ~" English 
foreigns," and, one error begetting another, 
it was believed they were coined in Eng- 
land, thereby showing great ignorance of 
the fact that each State has its own coinage 
which is not of this pattern. This kind 
is really coined in Mexico, and Mexico is 
far away in the North American continent, 
adjacent to the United States* Those who 
can read foreign letters declare that the face 
of the coin bears the inscription Mexico. 



97. In exchanging gold coins for silver, 
and silver for copper, or conversely, silver 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 99 

for gold, and copper for silver, the rate of 
exchange is always the same. There is 
nothing resembling our "morning? and 
"evening'* quotations, nor are there any 
special copper cash banks, — the exchange 
can be effected at any shop. 

* The Peking Cash Exchange held daily 
in the Outer City to determine the rate of 
silver as expressed in the " City Cash," is 
one of the sights of the place. Forty-nine 
cash go to the tiao, but the ttao varies from 
one-sixth to one-thirteenth of a dollar, 
leaving a large enough margin for specula- 
tion. Quotations are carried to the banks 
by means of pigeons. 



98. The English have one gold coin, 
known as a pang [pound], which ex- 



?oo A CELESTIAL ON 

changes for twenty silver coins known as 
hsien4ing [shilling]. These last are called 
in the Middle Kingdom "full quarters/* 
One hsien-ling exchanges for twelve copper 
coins named ptensse [pence], the piensse 
[penny] being worth twenty-four cash of 
the Middle Kingdom. There is also a 
half piensse equal to twelve cash, and a 
hwating [farthing] equivalent to six* 



99. The French have a gold coin which 
exchanges for twenty of the French silver 
coins known as fu4ang [francs]. If ex- 
changed for English hsien4ing it will fetch 
only sixteen, the reason being that their 
gold coin is comparatively light. 



100. The use of foreign coins is attended 
with the greatest inconvenience. In Eng- 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS, "^ loi 

Hsh possessions English money is used, in 
the French possessions, French. Italy and 
Switzerland also use the French coins, 
while America uses the English. They 
emphatically decline to give way to one 
another. But they all consider the 
"quarter*' [shilling or franc] as the most 
convenient coin, and in purchasing any 
article when asking the price it will always 
be computed for you in these " quarters." 
Otherwise foreign notes are employed, 
either ()ne-dollar or two-dollar notes, the 
paper not being more than an inch square. 
For five dollars or ten dollars gold coins 
can be used. 

* It is rather cool in a Chinaman to 
talk of " inconvenience '* in connection with 
European coinage. It is complicated, no 
doubt, but it is simplicity itself compared 



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I02 A CELESTFAL ON 

with the system, or want of ft, prevailing 
in China. Two neighbouring shops there 
will give you different numbers of" cash'' 
for your dollar; and when" you travel 
you must carry a clumsy and dangerous 
allowance of silver aiid a steelyard to 
weigh it in. When you have done that, 
you find that everybody else's steelyard 
differs from your own,— and always in 
their favour. 



101. Copper " coins resemble • foreign 
coins in their pattern ; the largest are 
worth twenty Middle Kingdom cash, the 
medium ten cash, and the smallest five 
cash. 



102. Vehicles drawn by horses are not 
alt of the same fashion. ^ Excluding those 
seen . in the Middle Kingdom, therfe are 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DE VILS."* 103 

carriages drawn by three horses, others 
with a horse on either side the shafts, 
others which only travel on iron rails, with 
very low wheels. These last require two 
horses, and can carry as many as thirty 
or forty persons, either in two rows facing 
one another, or divided among several 
rows facing forwards, or with an upper 
and a lower stage both provided vith 
seats. The track has two lines, one for 
going, the other for returning, running 
clear of one another. But there are small 
streets in which there is only room for a 
single line ; in these, however, there are 
sidings to enable them to pass. There is 
further a two-horse vehicle capable of seat- 
ing a dozen persons or so. On the roof 
of this conveyance is placed the luggage, 
b(>5te3. and hampers and other heavy 
Articles, a total weight of ten or a dozen 



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104 A CELESTIAL ON 

piculs. Though these conveyances do 
not travel on rails, they nevertheless go 
at a great pace because the surface of the 
streets is smooth and level, and they are 
thus enabled to carry such heavy weights. 
A "picul"is i33ilbs. 



103. The horse carriages are drawn up 
in lines at street crossings in some broad 
open space, awaiting a call from any one. 
When calling them, you merely blow on 
a whistle, and they hear the sound and 
come to you. But a distinction is made 
between a one-horse and a two-horse 
vehicle: for the two-horse vehicle you 
must whistle twice, for the one-horse once. 



104. Horse carriages must carry one 
or two bags of fodder, in which the horse 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 105 

can be fed at any place or time. When 
feeding him, all that has to be done is to 
fit the string of the bag on to the horse's 
head ; the mouth of the bag being applied 
to the mouth of the horse permits him 
to munch. This coptrivance is an exceed- 
ingly good one. 



105. Officials and wealthy private in- 
dividuals will have their own private 
carriages, the style of which is finer than 
thos€^ on hire. The drivers are seated 
side by side in pairs, their hats and clothes 
of one colour, which adds still more to 
their fresh and brilliant appearance. 

* The vehicle common to all China is 
the sedan chair, with two bearers for an 
ordinary individual and four for an official 



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io6 A CELESTIAL ON 

or a bride. The chair of an ofiicial of the 
highest rank is lined outside with green 
cloth, of a lower rank with blue, while a 
bride s'xliair is red. In the north, where 
alone. the streets are wide enough to allow 
it, carts are used, small and clumsy, with 
strong wheels heavily clamped in iron, 
and utterly ignorant of springs. Wheel- 
barrows to carry two are common enough 
(the Bishop of North China uses one, 
with a sail, in his visitations), and of late 
years the jinricsha has been introduced 
from Japan. Worn-out jinricshas go to 
North Formosa,, where there is a pro- 
gressive, governor anxious to surround 
himself with all modern appliances - for 
luxurious travelling. 



rr-^ 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' toy 

106. In populous pkces such as the 
chief towns, the: number of carri^g;es, 
small ^nd great, will reach ten or twenty 
thousand. Each ha5 its number which 
is registered, and by which it is distin- 
guished, making it easy to keep count 
of them. 



107. The drivets must be acquainted 
with the roads and byeways of the entire 
neighbourhood, and be experts in the art 
of managing the reins before they can set 
up as such! Carriage fares are fixed by. 
regulation, and maybe posted up on the 
carriage, which does away with extortion 
or quarrelsome importunity. 



l68. Tlie style of their street cars is 
most wonderful;^ What do I mean by 



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io8 A CELESTIAL ON 

** Street Cars"? They are large vehicles 

which seat passengers taken up here and 

there. The car is placed on four wheels 

and drawn by two horses. It travels in 

the centre of the street, on iron rails laid 

there. There are two tracks, one to the 

left for going, the other to the right for 

returning, and the horses without much 

exertion move the car along at a great 

speed- The body of the car is divided 

into an upper and a lower story. On the 

upper story are two benches back to 

back, on the lower two benches face to 

face. Each story can seat a score ot so. 

The number is fixed according to the size 

of the car, and no excess in the passengers 

carried is allowed. The fare is three cash 

a head, equivalent to sixty cash of the 

Middle Kingdom, no matter how short 

or how long the journey. The car has 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 109 

to keep along the one main street, going 
and returning straight, but off the eur 
trances to the side streets are arranged 
small covered platforms to enable half-way 
passengers to wait for the car and mount 
The method is to first procure from the 
platform-keeper a numbered ticket ; when 
the car passes, a whistle is sounded and 
it stops for a moment ; the driver asks the 
number of passengers, and these mount 
in their order, thus avoiding altercation. 
Should the seats be few and the number 
of passengers large, they are told to mount 
one at a time ; those left wait for a later 
car, no one causing a disturbance. As 
they mount the car a bell strikes one for 
one man, ten for ten men, and under the 
bell is the numerator. You see and hear 
that all is correct, and the number there 
recorded cannot by any possibility be 



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no A CELESTIAL ON 

tampered with. Inside the car you may 
not smoke, since men and women sit 
there indiscriminately arid the height of 
respect is thus shown to the women. The 
roof of the car is pasted over with adver- 
tisements of different shops. It is :said 
that this is some slight expense to the 
advertiser, for the object is to attract 
custom to him. The car as seen from 
afar off appears like a house in motion. 



1D9« There are : also low carriages 
owned by the large gardens. This kind 
has two benches back and back, and is 
easy to mount or dismount Each car- 
riage holds eight persons, and a single 
horse can draw three of them together. 
Their breadth takes "up not more than 



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" THOSE: FOREIGN DEVILS y in 

a few inches of the roadway, and they are 
very easy to work. 



110. Bullock carts, whether drawn by 
a team or by a single bullock, are 
solely employed in carrying goods, and 
are numerous in the country ; donkey 
carts the same. Vehicles pulled or pushed 
by human labour are of different fashions. 
They are generally used for transporting 
goods, as for instance those taken into 
market for the retailing of vegetables 
and fresh fruit. These carts being made 
flat, can serve as table or counter, >vhich 
is exceedingly convenient 



111. Sampans (wherries) and small 
boats differ everywhere. They are built 



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112 A CELESTIAL ON 

SO as to require oars, and not a scull. As 
for sails, they use them too. 

* The Chinese '* sampan" (the word 
comes from the Malay) is " yulowed" or 
worked by a single scull over the stern. 
Boatmen engaged by Europeans, who will 
row a gig in foreign fashion while their 
master is on board, often seize the first 
opportunity of his absence to stand up 
and propel the boat by backing water, 
as it were. 



112. When sleeping, clothes must b^ 
worn, of the full length of the body, 
with sleeves but no lappets. They are 
put on like a bag over the head, and are 
all of white cotton cloth. Hence when 
an inhabitant of the Middle Kingdom is 
met dressed in his long white jacket, rude 



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'* THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS."* 113 

laughter is aroused, for they think he has 
come out of doors by mistake in his night- 
shirt 

* Chinese, if they take off their clothes 
at all on going to bed, sleep in a pair of 
pantaloons with a sort of chest protector or 
cholera belt suspended from the shoulders. 



113. When a man of the Middle King- 
dom is met walking along the streets the 
crowd looks on him as a curiosity, and 
presses round like a swarm of bees or 
ants to stare at him. Women c^nd lads in 
particular point at and deride him, finding 
the fashion of his clothes strange, and 
above all, his long pendant queue. Further, 
every one suspects a beardless youth to 
be a Chinese woman, a wrong which it 
is certainly not easy to set right. 



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114 A CELESTIAL X)N 

114. Their women do not wear fresh 
flowers in their hair ; and those they stick 
into their hats are all made of cotton 
cloth, in the natural colours and shapes. 
But they dearly love to sport with fresh 
flowers, which however they thrust into 
the Jappet of their clothes in front of the 
bosom, on the plea that their fragrance 
can thus reach their nostrils. Young men 
do the same. 

♦ The "Sights of Shanghai" sums up 
in a startling and subversive manner the 
difference between English and Chinese 
flowers. " English blossoms," it tells us, 
"are more brilliant than Chinese, but un- 
like them, are altogether scentless, so that 
bee and butterfly avoid them." The head 
ornaments of Chinese women differ with 
the province, and would be a good subject 
for a curio craze. 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 115 

115. Not cloth flowers only are stuck 

into the hat, but every kind of fruit and 
berry^ and every sort of birds' feathers. 
Among these last the ostrich is most 
prized, a single feather being worth 
several dollars^ They are of three colours^ 
white, black, and red, but the red would 
appear to have been dyed. Sometimes 
they wear the entire body of a bird stuck 
upon the top of the hat, much in the same 
manner as the "plumed caps" of the 
ancients. 



116. Even women wear leather boots, 
which are slightly different from men's. 
Narrowness and smallness are regarded as 
elegant, and the hinder part of the sole 
is at the same time small and slightly 
elevated. Within doors they also wear 



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Xi6 A CELESTIAL ON 

coloured shoes made of silk or satin, some 
of which are embroidered in gold thread 
and colours. 

* The Chinese man's boot is a kind of 
golosh of cloth, satin, or other material 
(never leather), with a sole an inch or 
more thick, unyielding at the instep. The 
woman's boot is much the same, unless 
she is cramp-footed, or wishes to appear 
so. In the latter case, she adds a clump 
of wood three or four inches long and as 
many in diameter, to the heel of her shoe, 
in order to give her gait the desired 
ungainliness. 



117. In summer-time, though it may be 
broiling hot, no one wears gauze, or bares 
his body, or waves a fan. Women, how- 
ever, use fans, but for that it is not neces- 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 117 

sary that it should be summer, if a day 
in winter be a little warmer than usual 
they brandish their fans. However dread- 
fully cold it may be in winter, they do not 
fear frost or snow, do not put on wadded 
clothes or dress in skins. Women, how- 
ever, will wrap in furs, though you need 
not wait for winter to see that; if a 
sudden chill sets in in summer-time, they 
will put on their furs then too. 

* The Chinese man, however respect- 
able, will loll about in midsummer, stripped 
to the waist; but, unlike their sisters of 
Japan, the Chinese women never expose 
more than face, hands and occasionally, 
when of their natural size, feet. Every- 
thing in China is settled by the calendar ; 
the summer hat and dress differ from 
those of winter. The day on which one 



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ii8 A CELESTIAL ON 

Style is to be changed for the other is 
fixed by the Emperor, and, being an- 
nounced^ in the Peking Gazette, is obedi- 
ently observed throughout the empire. 



118. Wells invariably have windlasses to 
enable people to draw water without too 
much exertion. Even in out-of-the-way 
villages and in the country this is the case. 

* A common method of drawing from a 
well in China is to suspend a bucket from 
one end of a beam, to the other end of 
which a heavy stone is attached. Wells 
near a house are usually guarded by a 
perforated stone cylinder only a foot or so 
in diameter, the water being often (in 
Peking), drawn up in buckets little larger 
than a cocoanut. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' irg 

119, Telegraph-poles when set up over 
long distances are placed on either side of 
the railways ia endless succession. In the 
towns and markets where population is 
dense they will either place the poles on 
the roofs of the houses or bury the wires 
underground, just as it may happen. 

* The telegraph now extends over nearly 
the whole of China. At first the posts were 
cut down by the people, partly through 
superstitious fear, partly for firewood ; but 
when the authorities proceeded to treat the 
offenders much in the same manner, all 
trouble on this account ceased at once. 



12041 The gas-lamps arranged along the 
streets in a busy place will be correspond- 
ingly closer. Thus in the very largest streets 



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I20 A CELESTIAL ON 

they are set out in four rows, and in the 
middle of the roadway will be a larger lamp 
with threje lights on one pole or with five. 
Seen from a distance, they look like a cluster 
of stars, and their brilliance dazzles the eye. 
Those placed above the entrances to shops 
may carry on their poles the shop name and 
number ; similarly, those in the middle of 
the streets may have an electric clock 
attached to let passers-by see the time. 

* A gas engineer has long been employed 
to manufacture gas for the (foreign) In- 
spectorate General of Customs at Peking ; 
but though one at least of his lights has 
flared over the dust and mud of a Peking 
lane for nearly twenty years, the Chinese 
have made no attempt to replace by gas 
the miserable paper Janterns in rotting 
wooden frames. that would disgrace any less 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 121 

disgraceful thoroughfare than theirs. The 
electric light, however, has been introduced 
into the palace of Prince Ch'un, the Em- 
peror's father, and into the main street of 
the new capital of Formosa. 



12L Water-carts for sprinkling the roads 
are dragged along by horses ; or by the 
side of the road is placed a self-acting well. 
All that is done is to thrust the brass tubing 
of a leather pipe into it, and a man holding 
in his hand the leather tube squirts and 
sprinkles at his pleasure, the contrivance 
being easily worked. Every hundred feet 
or so he changes to another well, and so on, 
continuously along his whole route. 

* The streets of Peking are watered from 
the broken and clogged sewers alongside. 



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122 A CELESTIAL ON 

The foreign settlements at the Treaty Ports, 
being under foreign management, are, for 
the most part, as well lighted and looked 
after as any town of Western Europe. 



122. Electric clocks have no wheels in- 
side, being merely a clock face with a long 
and short hand, dependent entirely on the 
electric current to keep them in motion. 
The place whence the current comes takes 
the fixed time from a clock, and for the 
whole circuit of whatever distance there is 
no variation. 



123. Tubes for transmitting sound are 
called tC'lU-fung [telephones] and are also 
connected by an electric wire. They will act 
iX a distance of forty-eight li [sixteen miles 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 123 

or thereabouts]. Two persons wishing to 
avail themselves of this contrivance first go 
together to the bureau and agree upon their 
respective numbers. When we wish to 
converse, I telegraph to inform the bureau, 
which then telegraphs to the other party. 
He inclines his ear to the tube and hears at 
once the business about which I am speak- 
ing to him into my tube. 



124. Sleeping couches are either of iron 
or of wood, and differ in size. The feet of 
the couch are provided with rollers, a great 
convenience when pushing or moving them. 
There is a sleeping mattress a foot or two 
thick ; the pillows are one of them round, 
the other square, both made exceedingly 
soft with flock. Wadded coverlets are not 
used, but instead merely a folded woollen 



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124 A CELESTIAL ON 

blanket. Tables, chairs, wardrobes, etc., 
have these rollers under their legs to lighten 
the effort of pushing or turning them about 
to clean^jthem on all sides. But light 
articles easily moved are not provided with 
rollers. 

* A Chinese bed is either a ledge of 
brickwork, boards on a trestle, or a couch 
of wicker-ware. Mattresses are used to roll 
round the person, and the pillow is a hollow 
semi-cylinder of bamboo, which serves at 
night as a safe for valuables. Beds of a 
better sort have an elaborate valance for 
mosquito curtains, and are often surmounted 
by embroidered texts of the most exalted 
sentiment. The ordinary Chinese patient 
at a European hospital will surreptitiously 
remove himself to the floor, finding bare 
boards more comfortable than the foreign 
mattress. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 125 

125. There are iron couches in three 
folds. Spread out they form bedsteads, 
folded and fitted with planks, tables. 
Certain arm-chairs, too, can be pulled out 
arid lengthened so as to become couches, a 
still more ingenious contrivance. 



126. Washhand-basins are made of stone 
or of iron. The water is contained in tubes 
inside the wall, which can be opened and 
the water let out at will. One tube holds 
cold water, the other warm, awaiting the 
visitor's convenience. Washing finished, 
a wooden plug is pulled out of the bottom 
of the basin, and the dirty water flows out 
of itself. 

* The washhand-basin brought you in a 
Chinese inn is of wood, often painted and 



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126 A CELESTIAL ON 

varnished. Itinerant barbers, who are 
legion, carry a small basin of brass. 



127. The inside of the glass windows 
must be provided with a blind. Above this 
is a spring fastening ; with one pull the blind 
descends, with another it rolls up. This is 
both speedy and convenient, a contrivance 
which cannot be easily imitated. 



128. The porcelain of the Middle King- 
dom stands above that of every other 
country, and hence is looked upon by all 
alike as precious. Every one buys it and 
places it on his shelves, the better to 
show it off. Porcelain plates both large and 
small, having paintings upon them, are 
generally hung upon the walls so as to dis- 
play the design. They are not used for 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 127 

holding food, a furthef proof of the extreme 
value attached to them. 



129. Although their porcelain is not like 
that of the Middle Kingdom, still the de- 
signs upon it of whatever colour, are fresh 
and beautiful. The painted foliage closely 
resembles nature, and ravishes the eye. 



130. Horse carriages and railway cars in 
winter time are provided with a contrivance 
for warming^ the feet. It is made of iron> 
and i3 in shape round and flat. It is filled 
with warm water which is changed from 
time to time. The method of changing the 
water is as follows : a separate small car is 
provided in which is a blazing fire ; here 
these footwarmers are laid out, and before 
taking them to the cars they are brought 



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128 A CELESTIAL ON 

out one by one, tested and changed ; a very 
convenient and speedy system^ 



131. For washing clothes there are 
factories worked by machinery, for the maid- 
servants of a house do not undertake this 
duty* Men's and women's jackets and 
pantaloons, kerchiefs and socks, and sanitary 
towels all go indiscriminately together. 
The cost is estimated at so much a piece, 
whether it be a dozen yards in length or 
less than a foot. Speaking generally, for 
a dollar you can get twenty-four pieces 
washed. 

* It would be supeirfluous to say that 
the Chinese make excellent washermen ; 
as long as they confine themselves to wash- 
ing the clothes and refrain from wearing 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS. "* 129 

them, as is their common and pernicious 
custom. To obviate the unhappy con- 
sequences of this practice, a steam laundry 
was started in Hongkong, but could not 
make head against the vested interests of 
the native washermen. These charge at 
an "outport " two cents a piece. 



132. The toweHs used in a house are 
changed every day and the old ones re- 
moved, which may be considered cleanly 
enough. But no distinction is made 
between upper and lower, — in wiping the 
face and in rubbing down the body, even 
to the lower parts of the person, one and 
the same towel is used. A basin for the 
face may be used for washing the feet ; and 
men and women make use of them in 
common without let or hindrance. 



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I30 A CELESTIAL ON 

133. Both for washing the face and 
bathing the body cold water is used. In 
quenching the thirst, cold water is also 
taken. Aft^ eating they have a small 
bowl filled with water from which they 
scoop up a little with the hand and slightly 
rub the lips. There is no using of warm 
water. 

* The Chinese never drink cold water 
unless compelled by circumstances; they 
drink tea instead. This practice may 
explain the strange fact that, though the 
water used by them is nearly always 
polluted and rarely filtered in any way, 
they do not all die of cholera. After a 
native dinner, a rag or dingy cloth is 
brought round, dipped in boiling water, 
wrung out and offered to each guest in 
turn to wipe his face upon. 

« ♦ « « « 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 131 

135. Tea and comfits are taken twice 
a day, and a heavy meal twice; or tea 
and comfits once, and the heavy meal 
twice. About the time for the latter a 
bell is rung once to let people know, so 
that they may change their clothes and 
wash their hands ; when the bell is again 
rung they assemble together in the dining- 
room. They also sound a gong. 



136. At the heavy meals, every one is 
given bread, and then first soup and after- 
wards meats. The soup ordinarily con- 
sists of beef or chicken broth. Turtle 
soup is considered the most excellent. 
Later on, come mutton, fish, geese, chickens 
or pigeons; still later, "beef-oil-cakes" 
[cheese or butter], biscuits and fruits. 
Last of all coffee is served, and the affair 
is over. 



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132 A CELESTIAL ON 

137. At tea-time they take cow's milk 
and white sugar mixed with coffee or 
black tea. Either is taken with bread 
accompanied by butter or cooked delicacies, 
such as ham. The meal is, in fact, what 
IS called in the Middle Kingdom tien-hsin 
(*' stay the stomach.") 

* Cow's milk is never used in its fresh 
form ; condensed milk, on the other hand, 
is rapidly becoming very popular. Per- 
haps the most curious use to which it is 
put is as a substitute for vaccine. It is 
cheaper, more easily procurable, and at 
all events does no harm. 



138^ Their green meat is exceedingly 
tender. It is the custom to eat it un- 
cooked, rinsed in water and dried, then 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 133 

mixed with sesamum oil, salt, and vinegar. 
Clean, fresh, and sweet to munch, it is 
most delicious, and may be described as 
exceedingly scrumptious. 



139. Upon the dining-table is laid out 
a square white napkin, like the **food 
paper " of the Middle Kingdom, but 
enclosed in an ivory ring, inscribed with 
a number. This napkin is changed once 
every seven days. When eating, each 
person spreads his open in front of his 
chest, to receive gravy or soup, as well as 
to wipe his mouth. 



140. At each meal flower-bowls and 
vases are placed on the table, keeping 
alive fresh flowers or an arrangement of 



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134 A CELESTIAL ON 

green leaves, or every kind of flower and 
spray made up into a ball by way of 
embellishment. 



141. Men and women are seated together 
indiscriminately round the same dish and 
at the same table. Even a man and his 
daughter-in-law, a woman and her brother- 
in-law do not avoid each other s company. 
Two guests, strangers to one another, 
when they happen to be placed together, 
are not allowed to engage in conversation, 
but must address themselves to eating 
and drinking. 

142. Besides invitations to dinner, there 
are invitations to tea-gatherings, such as 
are occasionally given by wealthy mer- 
chants or distinguished officials. When 
the time comes, invitations are sent to an 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 13S 

equal number of men and women, and 
after they are all assembled, tea and sugar, 
mrlfc, bread, and the like, are set out as 
aids to conversation. More particularly 
are there invitations to skip and posture, 
when the host decides what man is to be 
the partner of what woman, and what 
woman of what man* Then with both 
arms grasping each other they leave the 
table in pairs, and leap, skip, posture, and 
prance, for their mutual gratification* A 
man and a woman previously unknown 
to one another may take part in it. They 
call this skipping tanshen (" dancing.") 

* The reason for this curious proceeding 
was well explained by a recent writer in 
a Chinese illustrated paper, the Hwa Poo. 
'* Western etiquette requires/* he says, 
** the man in search of a wife to write to 



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136 A CELESTIAL ON 

the girl's home and agree upon some day 
and place for a skipping match/* scilicet 
a dance. "The day arrived, 'youth in 
red and maid in green/ they come by pairs 
to the brilliant and spacious hall where, 
to the emulous sound of drum and flute, 
the youth clasping the maiden's waist, 
and the maid resting upon her partners 
shoulder, one pair will skip forward, 
another prance backward, round and round 
the room until they are forced to stop for 
want of breath. After this they will 
become acquainted," — only after this, 
observe — "and then by occasional atten- 
tions over a bottle of wine or exchange 
of confidences at the tea-table, their 
intimacy will deepen, the maiden's heart 
become filled with love, and they will 
mate." It seems that the editor or his 
readers had at one time doubts whether 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS."* 137 

the procedure thus elegantly described 
was really the one in vogue among 
Westerners. Some time ago, he remarks, 
a similar sketch appeared in the Hwa Poo, 
but was considered to be a somewhat far- 
fetched joke. Now, he says, '* this custom 
turns out to be one most highly honoured 
in the Great West," a part of the world, 
he adds, which the Duke of Chao (who 
formulated etiquette in China long before 
Confucius was born or thought of) " plainly 
never visited." 



143. When two persons, well-affected 
to one another, are about to take wine, 
they will stretch out their cups and strike 
them together so as to make them clink, 
and after that will drink them dry. This 
is intended to signify a hearty desire for 
each other's happiness and prosperity. 

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138 A CELESTIAL ON 

* At a convivial Chinese dinner wine- 
drinking is of the nature of a forfeit The 

guests are challenged to cap a rhyme or 

catch each other tripping in their childish 

finger-game (much like the Italian morra). 

The loser has to drink his wine-cup down, 

inverting it to show that no heel taps 

remain. It would be a pleasant pastime 

enough for a duffer if their wine were 

drinkable, — which, alas, it is not 



144. Mushrooms there have a flavour 
much like those of the Middle Kingdom. 
When fresh they are slightly different, 
and are quite without grit or dirt There 
is a peculiar kind of black fungus which 
is much esteemed and very costly. I am 
told that It grows in the hills, and when 



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*' THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 139 

they are searching for it they notice where 
the pigs grub, and so find it 



145. Flour rolls, that is to say, bread, 
differ in size. Some sorts are several feet 
in length, and when bought have to be 
cut before the bread can be put on the 
table. This is the kind eaten by poor 
men, but people of the upper classes, and 
the great hotels, use a smaller kind, either 
round or oblong or crescent shaped. If 
one such is insufficient, all you have to do 
is to call and have more brought. 

* Bread is not indigenous to South 
China, and in the north, where breadstuffs 
are alone grown, their *' bread " more re- 
sembles doughnuts or dumplings than a 
quartern loaf. Foreigners compelled to 



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140 A CELESTIAL ON 

eat it have it cut in slices, peeled, and 
fried. 



146. They make ice into cakes which 
are very grateful to the palate. These 
are manufactured of milk, eggs, and white 
sugar; water is added, and the whole 
evenly mixed and put into a thin circular 
vessel of iron which is then placed in the 
ice-barrel, and in an instant the thing is 
done. 

* Ice is plentiful in the north, where 
blocks a foot or more thick are cut from 
the canals and stored. It is to bie had 
as far south as Ningpo, the thin films 
forming each night being swept into 
thatched ice-houses, where they coagulate, 
as it were. No Chinese ice is fit to eat, 
and foreigners use it (for cooling or pre- 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'" 141 

serving purposes) only in those places 
where foreign ice-machines are not. 



147. Wine vessels made of glass are 
alone used. For each guest's use are 
provided several kinds, since of wines, too, 
there are several kinds. The size of the 
vessels varies ; each sort of wine is poured 
into its appropriate cup, no confusion being 
permitted, 

148. Spirituous liquors are of many 
sorts. Those usually drunk are known 
as red wine, pH (beer), sumg-ping (cham- 
pagne), and polanti (brandy). Red wine 
(claret) is distilled from grapes, and is to 
be had everywhere. Compared with other 
liquors, it is cheap. There is besides the 
paw (port) wine, miade of sheepV blood. 



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142 A CELESTIAL ON 

This, champagne, and brandy are all very 
dear. 



149. Tea-houses, otherwise coffee- 
houses, sometimes sell delicacies and eat- 
ables, sometimes spirituous liquors and 
comfits. The price of. a cup of coffee is 
the equivalent of thirty-four cash of the 
Middle Kingdom. In a principal street or 
a large establishment seventy or eighty cash 
would be asked ; at tea-gardens and cele- 
brated spots, or at houses of ill-fame, if it 
is sold, a cup will cost ten or twenty cents. 



150. A coffee-cup is not used for drink- 
ing tea, or a tea-cup for drinking coffee. 
Both are made of porcelain. A wine-cup 
is not used for drinking either coffee or 
tea, and is always of glass. Wine is drunk 



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'' THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 143 

cold, and hence the use of glass ; tea and 
coffee are taken hot, whence the porcelain. 



151. Coffee is a kind of bean, roasted, 
ground to powder, and boiled into a thick 
syrup, with the object of digesting food. 
White sugar, however, has to be added, 
to dissolve the bitter flavour ; after which 
it may enter the mouth. 



152. Tea, which Is pronounced tee, is 
always black tea ; but it must be mixed 
with milk and white sugar. They dare 
not drink it neat, alleging that it would 
corrode, and so injure the drinker. 

* Tea is properly made by placing a few 
leaves in a cup, and pouring on boiling 
water; it is drunk by covering the cup 



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144 A CELESTIAL ON 

with a saucer, and sucking the ' infusion 
through the interstice. No sugar is added 
or required ; for the tea-leaves used, being 
less thoroughly fired than those for foreign 
consumption, are far less acrid. The cha- 
racter (symbol) for " tea " is pronounced in 
the north ch'ah, but in Amoy and Swatow 
tay, — the original (and correct) pronuncia- 
tion of our own word tea, preserved for us 
in Dublin, Paris, and sundry verses, such 
as — 

" great Anna, whom three realms obey-, 
Doth sometimes counsel take, and sometimes tea." 



153. For drinking tea they have a fixed 
time. In the early morning they regularly 
take tea and comfits, after noon they do 
the same or substitute coffee, and in the 
middle of the night, after a big dinner, tea 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 14S 

is sometimes offered twice. They certainly 
do not resemble the people of the Middle 
Kingdom, who swallow it incessantly, from 
morn to eve. 



154. The sugar used is all manufactured 
from beetroot. Beetroot can expel coal 
poison, and that it thus serves both as 
food and as a remedy for disease is a 
further reason for exclaiming, " Heaven 
that can produce men can keep them in 
health." Nowadays the manufacture of 
sugar is all done by machinery, and manual 
labour is little employed. 

* Sugar is widely grown from the cane in 
South China and Formosa, but the absurd 
system of charging an export duty greatly 
impedes its sale abroad. The Chinese 

L 



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146 A CELESTIAL ON 

themselves have only the most primitive 
ways of refining ; in consequence, both 
their sugar and their salt are almost re- 
pulsively dingy. 



155. The price of Luzon tobacco (Manila 
cheroots) is very high, and a smoker will 
spend each day from half a dollar to a 
dollar. Compare with this the waste of 
wealth by smokers of opium in the Middle 
Kingdom, and what difference is there ? 

* Most excellent Manila cigars can be 
purchased at the open ports of China at 
about I3.50 a hundred, and a growing 
trade is done by Singaporean Chinese 
settled at the ports with the increasing 
number of native smokers. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 147 

166i In large dining-halls it is not per- 
mitted to smoke, neither is it in first-class 
railway carriages. Offenders are fined a 
potrnd* 



157. Kitchens are very clean. The 
cooking-range is of cast-iron, and con- 
venient beyond ail comparison. In pre- 
paring dishes the time required for cooking 
is fixed by the clock. A minute more, or 
a minute less, will not do. For instance, 
to boil an t,%^ three minutes are allowed ; 
for roasting a fowl, an hour. Everything 
is laid down by the clock. 

* A Chinese cooking-range is built of 
brick, with a few small holes for charcoal 
fires. On it stand a large iron pan for 
warm water (usually let into the stove), 



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14? A CELESTIAL ON 

and a quantity of very thin earthen pipkins. 
But with this primitive apparatus a Chinese 
cook can at the shortest possible notice 
turn out a varied and extensive dinner. 
He achieves it by rule of thumb, not by 
a timepiece or " Mrs. Beeton," 



158. The public flower gardens are very 
large, and planted with every kind of trees, 
flowers, and grasses. In them are reared 
all sorts of birds, beasts, insects, and fishes, 
and people go there to see, women with 
chiUren holding on to their skirts in a 
continuous crowd. Some take with them 
needle and thread, and embroider there, 
sitting in a circle, laughing and jesting, as 
though no men were by. 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 149 

159. In the streets women will pass to 
and fro side by side, from morning till 
evening. Husband, wife, and children, 
the whole family in short, lock their doors 
and come out. I do not know what all 
the bustle is about 



160. Wealthy people every day at four 
o'clock get into a carriage and take an out- 
ing, elegantly dressed and shod. Fathers 
and sons pass by, laughing and chatting, in 
a stream of carriages and a procession of 
horses. When their pleasure has been 
thoroughly gratified they disperse. 

* The model settlement of Shanghai (as 
its foreign creators fondly call it) is inocu- 
lating the natives with a taste for afternoon 
drives. The energetic municipality has 



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150 A CELESTIAL ON 

laid down smooth, broad roads for some 
miles into the surrounding country, and so 
permitted the use of European carriages 
in place of the aboriginal wheelbarrow. 
Young China takes kindly to the wagonette 
and barouche, and disports itself along 
these maloo (horse-roads) in too rapidly 
increasing crowds. The little native work 
already quoted, " The Sights of Shanghai/' 
devotes a chapter to the scenery on the 
principal of these roadways. The author 
describes the foreigner's delight in riding 
off into the country, there imbibing liquors, 
and thence returning in the cool of the 
evening. "This," he says, "realizes the 
dream of the old Sung poet, who sang — 

" ' Of golden reins and neighing steeds, and the scent 

of the greensward, 
And jewelled halls and men who drank, in the days 

when the peach was flowering.* " 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 151 

" Western ladies," he continues, " sit side- 
ways on the horse's back ; their slight 
frames are lifted into the shapely saddle, 
and their willowy waists sway as if tossed 
by the wind, adding yet another charm to 
their loveliness. Fashion," he explains, 
" in the West attaches great importance to 
matters military ; hence the fair denizens 
of their boudoirs, though weak of body, 
yet learn to manage the rein, unlike the 
maids of our Central Land, whose sole skill 
is to mix their rouge and lay on pearl 
powder, to adjust a hairpin, or to clasp a 
bracelet." 



161. In their museums are preserved all 
the flying, swimming, running, or growing 
products of the age, as grasses, woods, 
bamboos, stones, jewels, antiques. Every- 



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152 A CELESTIAL ON 

thing IS forthcoming, so that people are 
enabled to examine things at their leisure, 
and research is facilitated. 



162. At the Hall of Myriad Lives [the 
Zoological Gardens] are reared living birds 
and beasts, scaly creatures, insects, and 
reptiles, each class being brought up apart 
and after its natural mode of life, so as to 
permit the closer study of its habits. 



163. The Waxmen's Hall imitates in 
wax the figures of men so as to make 
them appear living. Each has a separate 
room, and people are allowed to inspect 
them. The majority of the figures are 
those of celebrated statesmen and generals, 
or men of worth or learning ; but among 
them are included any who have in past or 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 153 

present times become notorious. Their 
appearance is so life-like that they seem 
as though they would come out if they 
were called upon. 



164. At the Pictorial Hall are drawings 
of every kind of object and of celebrated 
landscapes, the artist's idea standing clearly 
out, with no blotch or blur to mar it 
Some pictures are executed in oil, others 
engraved on stone to resemble drawings. 
All display the skill of their authors, and 
seem as though designed by fairies. 

* Chinese paintings are water-colours, 
mounted (like the Japanese kakemono) on 
a long scroll of silk or paper, which can be 
rolled up and stowed away in a drawer. 
Some by their old masters (for they have 
old masters) are valuable enough, and 



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154 A CELESTIAL ON 

Stories like this (with its familiar motif) 
are often told. A wealthy virtuoso, return- 
ing home one day, met a ragamuffin coming 
out of his street door with a roll The 
ragamuffin explained that the roll was a 
celebrated picture by a certain artist which 
he, being hard up, wished to dispose 
of Said the virtuoso, as he drove him 
away, '* Do you take me for an idiot ? 
There is only one genuine painting of the 
kind, and that is in my collection." But, 
as he discovered too soon and yet too late, 
it was not : it had just departed with that 
ragamuffin. 



165. All these various halls, though 
they allow people to inspect them, yet take 
payment for it, at the most a dollar or 
half a dollar, at the least ten or twenty 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 155 

cents. Antiquities and places of celebrity 
can be visited and enjoyed by any one, 
and illustrated handbooks are designed for 
sale to visitors. N.eyertheless entrance 
money has to be paid, and this, with the 
tea and comfits provided, all adds to the 
expense. 

* There are ao trespass laws (and no 
game laws either) ia China ; but at most 
show places beggars and booths abound, 
and there* is usually a priest to be tipped. 
Some places which we should throw open 
to the world (as palaces^ mausolea, or state 
temples) are barred to access, though often 
a door through which a ragged, dirty 
coolie has just passed is insolently slammed 
in the face of a foreigner. "Globe- 
trotters '* have ere now found themselves 
subjected to rough treatment and extor- 



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1S6 A CELESTIAL ON 

tion for wandering into the Examination 
Halls or similar "sights" at Peking, a 
course of conduct singularly at variance 
with the precept on every Chinaman's lip, 
" Deal gently with men from afar." 



166. Their theatres are circular halls, 
either constructed of layers of stone or 
built of iron. They aim at great size, 
there being some theatres which will seat 
close on ten thousand people and which 
cost millions. The seats are divided into 
classes, forming ten or a dozen tiers of 
circles round the building. There is no 
separation of the sexes. 

* There are very few permanent Chinese 
theatres. Some fine ones, lighted by gas 
or electricity, exist under the foreign pro- 



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''THOSE FOREIGN devils:' 157 

tection of the Shanghai Settlements, and 
fevery guildhall has a stage as part of its 
equipment. As a rule, however, the 
theatre is a temporary erection of matting 
and bamboos serving as stage and dressing 
room. The auditorium is the open air, 
for the actors, a strolling band, are paid 
by subscription, and every one is free to 
view the performance. A Chinese audience 
does not expect to be charged for admis- 
sion ; indeed, so clearly expressed were 
the opinions of the Foochow populace on 
this point that the agent of a travelling 
foreign circus a few years back wrote to 
his principal to advise him to keep away. 
Nothing, he said, would make an impres- 
sion on the Foochovese except, perhaps, 
the royal Bengal tiger; the Nubian 
lioness would have done as well, but for 
the unfortunate accident to her front teeth. 



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isS A CELESTIAL ON- 

167. When an actor first appears on 
the stage, he must remove his cap and 
incline himself towards the seated audience 
as a mark of courtesy. The audience then 
drum upon their hands to signify their 
approval. An actor who has gone off the 
stage must appear again and, by bowing 
towards the audience, express his thanks. 



168. Their plays, like ours, are divided 
into "civil" and "military." The civil 
plays consist either of music solely, — when 
the sound is as of a boo-hoo, — or solely of 
mimicry. The majority are taken from 
the history of the country. The scenery 
is marvellous. When one scene is finished, 
the curtain is : dropped and the scenery 
changed. Below the stage music is played 
d^uring the interlude. In the case of these 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 159 

old romances, several scenes are brought 
together to form a play, and if this play 
is acted to-day, it will be acted again to- 
morrow, so as to let every one see it. 
When no visitors come to see, another 
play is substituted, or the troupe removes 
to another theatre. Military plays are 
those in which acrobats are engaged. The 
theatres in this case are somewhat larger 
and are also known as " circuses." 

* Only the doctrine of the Persistence of 
Error can explain why the often exploded 
idea crops up again and again that Chinese 
plays take weeks or months to act. As a 
matter of fact, several Chinese plays are 
got through in the course of a sitting, but, 
as in Shakespeare's time, the scenery is 
mostly left to be imagined, and hence it 
is not always easy for a foreign onlooker 



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i6o A CELESTIAL ON 

to tell when one play ends and another 
begins. 

169. The sovereign frequently comes 
down in person to a theatre to see a play. 
Each theatre must reserve, against his 
arrival, a room near the exit from the 
stage. From the entrance is spread an 
embroidered carpet as far as the place 
where he sits. When the prince enters 
and takes his seat, the whole house rises 
and, hats being removed, bows as a mark 
of extreme respect. The prince responds 
by a bow. His consort and sisters, and 
the heir apparent, occasionally appear. 



171. Houses of ill-fame exist in all 
countries but England, where they are 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' i6i 

forbidden because the sovereign is a 
female. « . ^ 

« « « « « 



174. Opium paste is kept only at the 
druggists' shops, for the reason that all 
pills and liquid medicines contain this drug. 



175. Opium is produced in India and 
its neighbourhood. Its price in its native 
country is eighty odd dollars a chest On 
export it pays over eighty dollars duty, 
and on arrival in China the greater the 
impost the higher is its price. 



176. In no country is opium smoked. 
As for the few dozen chests sold each year 
in England and France, these are all taken 

M 



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i62 A CELESTIAL ON 

by the druggists. In America, however, 
there has of late been some smoking, 
though not to any great extent. 



177. Although opium is sold at the 
druggist's, yet when a customer asks for it, 
the apothecary must first inquire what it 
is wanted for, to cure what complaint, and 
then he will only give a little, never a 
large quantity. When natives of the 
Middle Kingdom go to purchase it for 
smoking, and ask for several ounces, the 
druggist will at first be startled, then, on 
hearing that it is to be inhaled at a lamp 
he smiles and lets them have it. 



178. Drug houses are for the most part 
doctor's houses, and^ the medicated wines, 
liquid medicines, pills, and powder sold 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 163 

are made up by the doctor himself. There 
is no such thing as what we call a yin^ 
pien, or dose, hence though they may be 
called druggists' shops, still nothing is to 
be seen but the glass bottles, ranged row 
upon row ; you do not see the ingredients 
of the drug in their crude state, 

* The druggists' shops of the Middle 
Ages must have much resembled those of 
modern China* The most nauseous and 
disgusting substances are displayed for 
sale, and a medicine-dealer will often keep 
a live deer in a pen against the time when 
he will pound it whole in a mortar, coram 
populo, to convince his customers that his 
drugs are genuine. Medicines are gulped 
down by the quart, in a heterogeneous 
mass, the prescriber holding that \i one 
ingredient does not do its work anothei; 



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164 A CELESTIAL ON 

may. Their virtues, nevertheless, are many 
and my^terioiis. A missionary doctor was 
well acquainted with a native practitioner, 
a man of considerable intelligence and 
repute. Him he brought to his home one 
day and showed, with natural pride, his 
three fair-haired little girls. The native 
hastened to compliment his foreign friend : 
" Their complexions are indeed beautiful, 
but, if I may say so, their hair is, perhaps, 
hardly dark enough.*' He produced a 
bottle, " A dose of this taken internally, 
three times a day, would make a wonder- 
ful improvement." He went on with 
more embarrassment, "There is another 
thing about them that I hardly like to 
mention.^ His friend reassured him. 
"Well, if you will allow me to say it, 
they are all of them girls. Now, I have 
at home some pills that are perfectly 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' i6s 

infallible. Let them take these regularly 
for a moath or so, and I promise you they 
will develop into three as fine boys as 
father could wish for." 



179. When a doctor is called in to 
attend a patient, he does not feel the pulse 
or write a prescription, but merely ad- 
ministers a draught or something of the 
sort. When the sickness is cured, he 
sends in his bill and asks for payment, 
baling its amount on the number of his 
vi§its, and also on the wealth or poverty 
of the patient 

* A physician, the Chinese holds, must 
be an arrant humbug who cannot tell 
from feeling the pulse what ails his 
patient. The Chinese pulse has three 



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i66 A CELESTIAL ON 

divisions on feach wrist, and the beats of 
these correspond with different parts of 
the body, as the heart, lungs or liver. A 
foreign doctor called in to attend a 
Chinese lady suffering, it may be, from 
abscess or cataract, is still usually con- 
fronted with a skinny claw thrust through 
a curtain, and expected to diagnose and 
dose on the spot without further view. 



180, Doctors' fees are very heavy. If 
you call him to your own house to attend 
you, you will have to pay him three 
pounds, or at the very least one pound. 
If you go to his door and consult him, the 
fee is not more than twenty or forty cents. 
At a hospital no fee is required. 

* A Chinese doctor's charges (known 

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" THOSE FOREIGN DMVILSy 167 

as " horse-hire ") are very modest, varying 
from five or ten cents, to half a dollar. 
Any one may set up as a doctor, ias there 
is no medical faculty. Yet most Californian 
papers display two or three advertisements 
from Chinese quacks, who claim to have 
taken " high medical degrees " in Canton 
or elsewhere. 



181. If a man dies of some peculiar 
disease, the doctors assemble, and, sitting 
round the corpse, open it and examine the 
entrails, to find out the cause of death. 
The idea is to enable the doctors to make 
a thorough investigation. 

* Post-mortem examinations are a marvel 
and a horror to a Chinaman, who (as 
he believes in magic potions, and values 
medicines in proportion to their gruesome- 



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i68 A CELESTIAL ON 

ness) suspects that the foreign doctor who 
practises it, has some ulterior end in 
view, — such as the removal of the dead 
man's eyes to aid him in discovering silver, 
or the extraction of his liver, to give the 
eater courage. Chinese practitioners are 
divided into "inner" and *' outer," the 
inner (despite their appalling ignorance 
of anatomy) being the most esteemed. 
A common story tells how a patient with 
an arrow through his arm applied to an 
" outer " doctor, who cut off the two ends 
of the arrow and clapped a plaster on 
either wound. " But," objected the patient, 
"the rest of the arrow is still there." 
"That," answered the medico, "is not 
my business: you must look up an "inner" 
doctor if you want it removed." 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 169 

182« Should any one die on board a 

.mail steamer, after an interval of twelve 

hours the corpse is thrown into the sea, 

as it may not be kept in a coffin. On 

other vessels things are different. 

* It is hardly necessary to explain that 
a Chinaman always desires to lay his 
bones in his native land ; for it is one 
of the counts in the Australian indict- 
ment of him that he not only spends his 
savings in China, but " won't even leave 
his old carcase behind to manure our 
lands." The commanders of steamers 
plying between Singapore and China en- 
deavour to carry to shore the body of a 
Chinese passenger dying on board, for if 
they succeed, custom is attracted to their 
company, and they themselves receive 
profuse thanks, often, indeed, an em- 



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170 A CELESTIAL ON 

broidered banner emblazoning their "be- 
nevolence/' 



183, In the event of an epidemic, the 
most stringent preventive measures are 
taken. No vessel coming from an in- 
fected country is allowed to approach the 
shore, but has to lie for three days outside 
the harbour, after which alone can she 
land her passengers and cargo. In the 
letters she carries a hole is bored with 
a knife, so as to let the contagion out. 
That exhausted, they may be sent to their 
various destinations. 

* So careless are the Chinese of infec- 
tion that I have seen at the same steps two 
women washing in a stagnant pool, one 
the bedclothes of her husband just dead 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS."" 171 

of cholera, the other the rice for her family 
dinnen 



184, Neither the king nor his ladies 
have a mausoleum, but after their decease 
are buried beneath their palaces, and their 
likeness carved in stone is placed above, 
or is moulded of brass ; but no ceremonial 
prayers or oblations are offered them. 

* The Emperors of China and their 
ladies are buried in what in China would 
pass as splendid tombs among the hills, 
east and west of Peking. Auspicious sites 
are chosen even in the lifetime of their 
future occupants (the present empress 
dowager chose hers as long ago as 1874), 
and preparations for the mausolea com- 
menced. At intervals the Court makes 
special journeys for worship at the imperial 



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173 A CELESTIAL ON 

tombs, very troublesome and, in these pre- 
sent times of famine, most cruelly expensive. 
The cost of building and maintaining the 
mausolea is out of all proportion to the re- 
venue of the State, but economy in this 
direction would never occur even to the 
most patriotic Emperor. The place of an 
effigy of the deceased is taken by his " spirit 
tablet," a perpendicular strip of wood some 
three feet high inscribed with his post- 
humous title» 



185. When a person dies, he has, like us, 
his coffin ; but these are not kept on sale 
ready made. After he is dead, a carpenter 
is called in, who measures the size and 
length of the body, and hollows out a 
round piece of wood according to the 
shape of the deceased. The corpse is then 
wrapped in cotton cloth, but not dressed 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 173 

nor booted, and so placed inside, in order 
that it may be buried at once. 

* Chinese coffins, known euphemistically 
as " longevity boards," are often purchased 
or presented some years before death. 
After death, the body is dressed out in 
cloak, hat, and boots (in the case of an 
official, in his uniform), and so placed in the 
coffin. This is then closed as tightly as may 
be, and kept in the house, certainly forty- 
nine days, but possibly, if the geomancers 
fail (as they usually do when the family is 
wealthy) to find at once a good site for the 
grave, several years, before burial 



186. When a man dies, the doctor must 
give a certificate before a coffin can be 
brought. Without it no coffin could be had, 
and the police would seize the corpse there 



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174 A CELESTIAL ON 

and then, open it and search for the cause 
of death. If the dead man did not die a 
natural death, an inquiry has to be made 
into the circumstances of his decease. 

* Coroners exist in China as well as in 
England, and they have many more tests 
for ascertaining the cause of death than 
we possess. For a list of these, Giles's 
'* Chinese Sketches," an all too brief col- 
lection of notes on quaint Chinese customs, 
should be consulted. The superstition 
there mentioned, about the absorbent 
powers of a parent's bones, is of universal 
credit. We had to find an heir to a 
Chinese settler in the Straits, who had 
died intestate. Two men appeared claim- 
ing each to be the deceased man's only 
son. Correspondence with the native 
authorities resulted in nothing; but this 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS:' 175 

did not at all disturb our Chinese clerk, 
'*You have got the dead man's bones in 
Penang/' he said. " Very well ; send both 
claimantsi there; prick an arm of each, 
and let the blood drip on to the bones. 
If the blood of either soaks in, he is a son 
right enough ; if not, he is an impostor/' 
It was quite useless to urge that the 
Supreme Court of the Straits would not 
grant probate on such proof; argument 
only left him convinced that the constitu- 
tion of that Court must be hopelessly, 
barbarously wrong. 



187* Cemeteries are all made on the 
level ground ; they do not choose for this 
purpose high hills. They bury breadth- 
wise or lengthwise in regular rows much as 
4H a free burial-ground in the Middle 



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176 A CELESTIAL ON 

Kingdom. For a family will possess but 
one pit, and that of size sufficient only to 
admit a single coffin. Hence it has to be 
dug to z, depth of a score of feet or so, 
and the first to die is buried at the bottom ; 
over his coffin is placed a stone beam, and 
succeeding corpses rest upon those earlier 
buried, in a row one upon the other like 
the stories of a house, till they are level 
with the surface ; when a new pit must be 
sought elsewhere. 

* In the south graves are invariably 
made in hilly ground, so much so that 
" hill " has become to some degree a 
synonym for "grave." The dead are not 
(except in the case of paupers buried in 
some "benevolent plot,") interred in ceme- 
teries, but in detached graves. A good 
site for a tomb commands high prices, so 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS.'' 177 

that hill land, though useless for cultivation, 
may be very valuable property for all that* 
It is curious that though a Chinaman in life 
pigs it in a dirty hovel little raised above 
the level of the surrounding swamp, in 
death he occupies a breezy, healthful spot, 
commanding often a most charming view. 
The result is that the best situations, as we 
should regard them, for a dwelling-house 
are almost constantly found occupied by a 
Chinaman's grave, and though the man's 
descendants will, in most cases, consent to 
remove him, it is always for a very con- 
siderable consideration. 



19L Of the six domestic animals, horses 
are most numerous, and they have some of 
great strength, far larger than the ordinary 



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178 A CELESTIAL ON 

kind. These are used to convey heavy 
articles to a distance, and in the country for 
ploughing. Oxen are not led by the nose, 
but allowed. to roam about, nor are they 
employed in ploughing, but are devoted to 
the knife. Sometimes they are used to 
draw carts. Of sheep, the yellow and black 
kinds are the commonest, and are pastured 
in flocks. I have only seen their small 
chickens, but they have besides some very- 
large ones. Their pigs are all small-eared,, 
and pork is cheaper in the market than 
beef or mutton, 

* The horse, common enough in North 
China, but rarely seen in the south, is a 
pony never more than 13*2 or 13*3 high. 
Sheep are reared freely in the north ; goats, 
to some extent in the south. The pig and 
don^estic fowl are found everywhere; the 



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" THOSE FOREIGN DEVILS?' 179 

one an ungainly black brute, useful as a 
scavenger (and for that. reason never eaten 
by Europeans), the latter often, through 
neglect and starvation, destitute of feathers. 
An orthodox Chinaman will not eat beef, 
not for any superstitious reason, but because 
he considers it wilful extravagance to kill 
"the ploughing beast," for everywhere 
ploughing is done by oxen, not by horses. 
Foreigners in Peking used to classify the 
beef provided them as " donkey," ** camel," 
" horse," or "precipice." " Precipice beef" 
was the only variety in general demand ; 
it is the product of a cow that has got 
itself killed by falling over a precipice. 



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INDEX. 



\^The numbers refer to paragraphs^ and not to pages,] 

Actors wear white gloves on the stage, 9 ; must bow 

to audience before performance, 167. 
Advertisements made up in book form, 84 ; illuminated 

kiosks, 91 ; in the roof of " street cars," 108. 
Art^ foreigners very particular, 54 ; improper pictures 

due to superior cleverness of female artists, ib. 
BasinSy for washing hands, filled by tubes, 126 ; may 

be also used for washing the feet, 132 ; and by 

men and women alike, ib. ; night slippers used 

as, 134. 
Baths y varieties and charges, 26 ; women in, ib, \ cold 

water used, not hot, 133. 
Beards grown after age of twenty, 52. 
Bedsy bedsteads of iron or wood, 124 ; sometimes 

fold into tables, 125 ; pillows are of flock and 

soft, 124. 
Beggars numerous, their devices, 83 ; must not exhibit 

nakedness, ib. 
Bells for front doors and rooms, 60 ; electric, in rooms, 

64; rung before meals, 135. 



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1 82 INDEX. 

Birdsy singular absence of, 14. 

Boats worked by oars, not a scull, iii. 

BookSy copy must be sent to public building for 

deposit, 45. 
Bracelets y diflferent pattern for either arm, 57. 
Bread ("flour rolls"), common kind some feet in 

length, 145 j better sort small, ib. 
Cemeteries all on level ground, 187 ; corpses buried 

on top of one another, ib. 
Children must go to school, 46 ; change clothes 

before meal, 6; names for "papa" and 

" mamma," 47 ; when grown up regard parents 

as strangers, 49 ; salute parents by applying 

lips to chin, 49, 75 ; illegitimate children 

common, 55. 
Chinese in streets jeered at by small boys and 

women, iii, 112; porcelain best of all, 128; 

astonish foreign druggist by large demand for 

opium, 177. 
Clocks, insurance system for keeping wound up, 70 ; 

electric clocks, 122. 
Coffee, 2l kind of bean made into syrup, 151 ; cost of 

cupful, 149 ; special cups, 150 ; supposed to aid 

digestion, 151. 
Coins all struck by Government, 36; ihtpang^ hsien- 

lingy and piensse, 98; "eagle foreigns" come 

from Mexico, 96 ; no cash banks, 97 ; French 

fulangy 99 ; inconvenience of foreign coins, 
100 > price computed in "quarters," Uf. ; coppers^ 

lOI. 



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INDEX. 183 

Courty white gloves worn at^ 9 ; women exhibit bare 
$kin at, 75. 

Crucifix^ not as in Middle Kingdom, 73. 

Death on mail steamer, corpse buried in sea, 182 ; on 
shore, in coffin at once without being dressed, 
185; doctor's certificate required, 186; corpse 
sometimes opened, i8i. 

Doctors do not feel pulse, 179; send in bills accord- 
ing to patient's means, ib. ; fees very heavy, i8o ; 
open corpses if death was peculiar, 181 ; certifi- 
cate necessary before burial, 186. 

Domestic animals^ 191. 

Druggists^ drag houses chiefly doctors', 178; drugs 
not exhibited in crude state, ib. 

Duties, customs tariff changed yearly, 32 ; on cigars, 
tobacco, and tea, 33. 

Ear-rings worn, or not, at pleasure, 57, 

Eating-houses, families with servants go to, 67 ; uten- 
sils laid out, and in good condition, 87 ; bills of 
fare, 89. 

Fiiles de Joie ioMU'dL everywhere, 170; establishments 
disallowed in England, because sovereign is 
female, 171 ; in other countries very magnificent, 
172. 

Fires, movable ladders as escapes, 39 ; fire-engines, a 
rare contrivance, 40 ; telegraphic alarms, 41 ; fire 
insurances for landlord's rents, 42. 

Floors, inlaid, 27 ; must have rugs except in servants' 
rooms, 59. 

Flowers, women and youths wear on jacket, 114; 



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M84 INDEX. 

kept in bowls on dining-table, 140; made of 
cotton for the hair, 114; public gardens where 
women chat, 158. 

Gas-lamps like a cluster of stars, 120. 

Gloves worn out of doors, 9 ; white most distin- 
guished, ib. 

Guests, two strangers may not converse, 141. 

Hallsy of Myriad Lives, 162; Waxmen's, 163; Picto* 
rial, 164 ; all demand entrance-money, 165. 

Handshakings host's grip, 7 ; men and women no 
scandal, 11. 

Hats removed indoors, 10; and when meeting ac- 
quaintances, 11; also by actors bowing to audi- 
ence, 167. 

Hotels, music at every meal, 6; might be prince's 
palace, Z^ \ elaborate bill of fare, 89. 

Houses all have upper stories, 18; only wealthy 
people have whole house to themselves, 21; 
flooring, 27. 

Husband may wait on his wife underided, 2 ; man 
may marry only one wife, 35 ; widower may now^ 
adays remarry, ib. 

Ice made into palatable cakes, 146. 

Illegitimate children very common, 55. 

Images on sides or roofs of houses, 25. 

Insults, people very sensitive to, 37 ; hence prisons 
can be comfortable, z2> ; unknown among asso- 
ciates, 44« 

Insurance, to secure landlord's rents, 42 ; to repair 
clocks and carpets, and dean windows, 70. 



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INDEX, 185 

Kissing^ applying of the mouth to the lips or chin of' 

another with a smacking sound, 49, 75. 
Kitchens^ wery clean, 157. 
Labourers must abide by fixed hours, 63. 
Languages of various foreign countries differ, 47 ; in- 
scrutable similarity of words for "papa" and 
*' mamma," 47. 

Lifts instead of staircases, 19. 

Locks^ curious variety, 23. 

Manure applied to root, not daubed on leaves, 72/ 

Mealsy women waited for at, 4 ; smoking not allowed 
till women leave, S ; all change clothes for, 6 ; at 
ringing of bell or gong, 135 ; must not slobber 
at, 6 ; mouth rinsed with cold water after, 133 ; 
heavy meal once a day, sometimes twice, 135 ; 
bread first given, then soup, niutton, etc, 136 ; 
. napkins worn to catch drops, 139 ; flower-bowls 
on table, 140 ; strangers may eat but not talk, 
141. 

Mournings emblem black not white, 12 ; black horses, 
ib. ; worn for juniors, ib. 

Moustaches^ outward sign of vigour, so shaved by old 
men, 52 ; women constantly seen with, 74. 

Museums preserve everything, i6i. 

Mushrooms free from dirt, 144; one special kind 
grubbed up by pigs, ib. 

Napkins for meals changed every seven days, 139 ; 
spread under chin to catch drops, ib. 

Nastiness avoided in conversation, 8, 

Newspapers cried along streets, 69. 



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iS6 INDEX. 

Nudity^ art models may exhibit, 54 ; and women at 
Court, 75 ; but not beggars, 83 ; men do not bare 
their bodies even in summer, 117. 

Nurses^ special uniform for wet nurses, 66. 

OpiuMj as much money spent by foreigners on tobacco 
as by Chinese on opium, 155 ; produced in India 
at J880 a chesty 175 ; paste only sold in druggists' 
shops, 174; never smoked by foreigners, 176; 
except occasionally by Americans, ib. ; foreigli 
druggists' astonishment when asked for ievenl 
ounces, 177. 

Oxen kept for slaughter, not the plough, 191. 

Paper ^ rags resuscitated ii^, 53; printed 4tS6d in 
privies, i88. 

Pawnsiups amtroUed by magistrates, 85; regula- 
tions, ^. 

Photifgraphs of sovereign may actually be made, 43. 

Pope, kings used to sniff his toe, 29 ; is now deposed, 
ib. 

Porcelain^ Chinese best of all, 128 ; not used to hold 
food, but hung on walls, ib. ; designs on foreign 
porcelain, life-like, 129. 

Post-offices, Government property, 61; postage paid 
by means of " devil-heads," 61 ; horizontal slit 
in door for letters, 62. 

Prisons far too comfortable, 38. 

Privies very clean, 188 ; charges at hotel, 189 ; and 
elsewhere, 190. 

Removal of goods, always in carts or on people's 
heads, 65. 



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INDEX. iSt 

Rkhpet^U not considered respectable wkhout summer 
outing, 68 ; have a whole house to themselves, 
21 ; and a private carriage with two gorgeous 
drivers, 105; drive every day at four o'clock, 
160. 

Rigkt hand place of honour, not left, i ; raised to tip 
of ear as salutation, 11. 

Salads taken at end of meals, 136 ; very scrumptious, 

138^ 
Scenery^ celebrated ; entrance-money, guide-books, and 

refreshments all have to be paid for, 165. 
School, all children must go to, after age of eight, 

46 ; there are schools for girls, 56 ; scholars wear 

uniforms, 56^ 
Servants, masters do not vilify, 44; knock at doors 

before entering, 64 \ middle and lower classes do 

not have, 66 ; maid-servants and lads very handy, 

79; wages, 79, 80; wives of, can read, 81; no 

carpets in rooms, 59. 
ShopSy ground-floors of dwelling-houses, 21 ; tinftteis 

of iron dabs, sa ; aeliiiiglDBOveseigii diqday lion 

and horse, 94 ; no one on guard at night, 95 ; 

have no hanging signboards, 92 ; certain large 

shops keep everything in stock, 93. 
Shutters, iron slabs for shops, 22. 
Sleeping clothes, Chinese summer dress mistaken for 

night-gown, 112; sleeping couches of iron or 

wood, on rollers, 124; some fold into tables, 

Smoking, not before women, 5^ 108 ; visitor may please 



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188 INDEX. 

himself, 7 \ not to smoke considered meritorious, 
78 ; few women smoke, 78 ; fine of ;^i for smok- 
ing in large halls or railway carriages, 156. 

Soldiers engaged by weight, 30 ; pensioned, ib.\ uni- 
forms always worn, 31. 

Soupy no noise must be made over, 6 ; turtle the best, 
136 ; napkins worn to catch drops, 139. 

Sovereign may not take concubine, 35 \ photographs 
of may be copied by people, 43 ; shops dealing 
with, display lion and horse, 94 ; often visits 
theatres, 169; is buried in palace, and has no 
prayers offered to his spirit, 184. 

Spectacles worn by young girls in public, 71. 

StaircaseSy trucks used instead ofy 19; front and 
back, 20; of stone or wood, with carpets^ 

24, 59* 

StreetSy shade-trees and hired benches, 13 ; formed of 
stone or wood, 16; images in, 25 ; gas-lamps in 
middle of, 120 j watered by carts, 121 ; wonder- 
fully smooth, 102. 

Sugar zXL made by machinery from beetroot, iS4i a 
providential cure for coal poison, ib. 

Suicides mutilate body without compunction, 82. 

Summer outing, no family respectable unless it takes, 
68 ; weather, no one bares the body, 117. 

Sunday Sy traffic ceases on, 28. 

Tanshen (dancing), foreign term for the skipping and 
prancing together of men and women, 142. 

Tea taken with comfits twice a day, 135 ; mixed with 
cow's milk and sugar, 137 ; pronounced '* tee," 



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INDEX. 189 

152; foreigners daren't drink it neat, 152; is 
taken at regular times, not gulped all day, 153. 

Teachers do not use stick to pupils, 44. 

Telegraphs along railways, over roofs, or underground, 
119. 

7Ij/<i/^/^«^ (telephones) are tubes for transmitting sound, 
123. 

Theatres^ circular rooms of stone or iron, 166 ; actors 
bow to audience, 167 ;. scenery is marvellous, and 
changed for each act, 168; their plays also 
"civilian" and "military," %b.\ the sovereign 
often visits, 169. 

TobaceOy duty on, 33 ; as much spent on by foreigners 
as on opium by Chinese, 155. 

Jewels changed daily, 132 ; same towel for whole 
body, ib. 

Trees planted along roads, 13 ; if cut down must be 
replaced, 14; kinds of, 15. 

Umbrellas^ women carry always, men only when it 
rains, 58. 

Vegetable gardens, large capital invested in, 71; 
covered with glass, ib» 

Vehicles^ some with three horses, some on rails, 102 ; 
in summoning, whistle once for a one-horse, 
twice for a two-horse, 103 ; must carry nose-bags, 
X04; private carriages with pair of gorgeous 
drivers, 105 ; registered numbers, 106 ; drivers 
must know way about, 107; and may not 
'* squeeze," ib.-, ** street cars" (trams) very 
wonderful, 108; low carriages owned by gardens. 



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190 INDEX. 

109 ; bullock-carts not used for passengers, no ; 
contrivance for warming feet in carriages, 130. 

Visitor^ no tea offered, 7 ; may smoke or not, ib. 

Wdikingj persons in company walk abreast, 3 ; meet- 
ing acquaintance, raise hand to ear, 11 ; women 
must go out every day, 30. 

Waxworks^ likeness very life-like, 163. 

Washing^ clothes done by machinery, 131 ; at twenty- 
four pieces the dollar, ib. 

Wafer, cold water used for bathing, rinsing mouth, 
and drinking, 133. 

^ZTj have windlasses, 118. 

Widower may nowadays re-marry, 35. 

Wife^ husband will perform menial offices for, 2 ; men 
may have only one, 35. 

Windows, system of insurance for cleaning, 70 ; all 
have blinds, 127, 

Wine, people who don't drink considered meritorious, 
78 ; glasses clinked together by friends at meal- 
time, 143 ; vessels are of glass, not earthenware, 
147, 150; and of different shape for each wine, 
147 ; red wine to be had everywhere, 148 ; port 
wine is made of sheep's blood, 148. 

Worship, places of, most numerous in Italy, 17. 

Women are honoured before men, i ; husband may 
wait on wife, underided, 2 ; are made way-for in 
streets, 3 ; sit down first at meals, 4 ; men may 
not smoke before, S, 108 ; hand-shaking with men 
no scandal, 11 ; wear black crape on their heads 
for mourning, 12 ; may bathe with husband, 26 ; 



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INDEX. 191 

must go out walking every day, 30 ; make their 
own marriage engagements, 48, 50; when they 
wear plain gold rings^ 50 ; may travel unattended, 
51 ; improper pictures due to superior cleverness 
of, 54 ; will copy undraped models, or pose them- 
selves, 54 ; no law to prevent illicit intercourse, 
55 ; sometimes wear ear-rings, always bracelets, 
57 ; invariably carry umbrellas and fans, 58 ; 
often have moustaches, 74 ; and unpleasant odour 
due to meat-eating, ib. ; regard a bare skin as a 
mark of respect, 75 ; aim at small waists and 
large breasts, 76; wear spectacles in public, 77 ; 
very few smoke, 78 ; can all read and write, 81 ; 
employed behind counters to attract custom, 90 ; 
and at saloons, 80 ; sit with men at table d'hSte, 
%^\ and at home round the same dish, 141 ; 
deride Chinaman's quetu^ 113; wear artificial 
flowers in the hair, 114; or even whole birds, 
115; have slim leather boots with high heels, 
116 ; will put on furs in summer, or use fans in 
winter, 117 ; use same basins for washing as men, 
132 ; do not avoid company of father or brother 
of husband, 141 ; will skip or dance with men 
previously unknown, 142; will embroider and 
chat in public gardens, 158 ; and pass up and 
down street all day, 159 ; not separated from the 
men at theatres, 166. 



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